- Lesson 119.1: What does it mean when a system is in a state of dynamic equilibrium?
- Lesson 119.2: Why is there a limit as to how much salt you can dissolve?
- Lesson 119.3: Explain these observations in terms of the amounts of starting subs...
- Lesson 119.4: When phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5(g), is placed in a sealed conta...
- Lesson 119.5: Th e graph below shows the reversible separation of a molecule boun...
Solutions for Chapter Lesson 119: Dynamic Equilibrium
Full solutions for Living by Chemistry | 2nd Edition
absolute temperature scale.
A temperature scale that uses the absolute zero of temperature as the lowest temperature. (5.3)
activation energy (Ea).
The minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. (13.4)
Polymers that are formed via cationic addition, anionic addition, or free-radical addition.
A monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group
The light absorbed by a substance (A) equals the product of its extinction coefficient 1e2, the path length through which the light passes (b), and the molar concentration of the substance (c): A = ebc. (Section 14.2)
Bonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electrons have a lower energy than they would in isolated atomic orbitals
Compounds or ions that are not superimposable with their mirror images. (23.4)
A saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbons joined to form a ring
A bond to a chair conformation of cyclohexane that extends from the ring roughly perpendicular to the imaginary axis through the center of the ring; a bond that lies roughly along the equator of a cyclohexane ring
From the Greek, meaning water-fearing.
In radical reaction mechanisms, a step in which radicals are created.
Lewis dot structure
The symbol of an element surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the valence shell of the atom
Liquids that mix in all proportions. (Section 13.3)
A rule stating that the molecular ion of a compound with an odd number of nitrogen atoms has an odd m/z ratio; if zero or an even number of nitrogen atoms, the molecular ion has an even m/z ratio
Pauli exclusion principle
No more than two electrons may be present in an orbital. If two electrons are present, their spins must be paired
Primary (1°) amine
An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one carbon and two hydrogens
An applied magnetic fi eld causes the p electrons of an aromatic ring to circulate, giving rise to the so-called ring current and an associated magnetic fi eld that opposes the applied fi eld in the middle of the ring but reinforces the applied fi eld on the outside of the ring.
The general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories, and laws. (Section 1.3)
A signal of an NMR spectrum that is shifted toward the right (smaller chemical shift) on the chart paper.
The outermost occupied electron shell of an atom.