- Chapter 1: Matter and Change
- Chapter 10: States of Matter
- Chapter 11: Gases
- Chapter 12: Solutions
- Chapter 13: Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Coiigative Properties
- Chapter 14: Acids and Bases
- Chapter 15: Acid-Base Titration andpH
- Chapter 16: Reaction Energy
- Chapter 17: Reaction Kinetics
- Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium
- Chapter 19: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
- Chapter 2: Measurements and Calculations
- Chapter 20: Electrochemistry
- Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry
- Chapter 22: Organic Chemistry
- Chapter 23: Biological Chemistry
- Chapter 3: Atoms: The Building Blocks ofMatter
- Chapter 4: Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms
- Chapter 5: The Periodic Law
- Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding
- Chapter 7: Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds
- Chapter 8: Chemical Equations andReactions
- Chapter 9: Stoichiometry
Modern Chemistry 1st Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry | 1st Edition
A solid that lacks a regular three-dimensional arrangement of atoms or molecules. (11.7)
The most common drawing style employed by organic chemists. All carbon atoms and most hydrogen atoms are implied but not explicitly drawn in a bond-line structure.
The pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state. (Section 11.4)
A termination process that involves the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the beta position of the propagating radical of one chain by the radical endgroup of another chain.
The escape of a gas through an orifice or hole. (Section 10.8)
A process in a chemical reaction that occurs in a single step. An overall chemical reaction consists of one or more elementary reactions or steps. (Section 14.6)
An organic compound containing at least one halogen.
Heat of combustion (DH0 )
Standard heat of combustion is the heat released when one mole of a substance in its standard state (gas, liquid, solid) is oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water.
Homolytic bond cleavage
Cleavage of a bond so that each fragment retains one electron; formation of radicals.
The attractive interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to an atom of high electronegativity (most commonly O or N) and a lone pair of electrons on another atom of high electronegativity (again, most commonly O or N).
The tendency of nonpolar groups to cluster so as to shield them from contact with an aqueous environment.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy
A spectroscopic technique in which a compound is irradiated with infrared radiation, absorption of which causes covalent bonds to change from a lower vibration state to a higher one. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly valuable for determining the kinds of functional groups present in a molecule.
In additionreactions, the observation that the hydrogen atomis generally placed at the vinylic position alreadybearing the larger number of hydrogen atoms.
An intermediate that is believed to be formed during Wittig reactions.
parts per million (ppm)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 106 (million) grams of solution; equals milligrams of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
Properties that can be measured without changing the composition of a substance, for example, color and freezing point. (Section 1.3)
A change in connectivity of the atoms in a product compared with the con nectivity of the same atoms in the starting material.
second law of thermodynamics
A statement of our experience that there is a direction to the way events occur in nature. When a process occurs spontaneously in one direction, it is nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. It is possible to state the second law in many different forms, but they all relate back to the same idea about spontaneity. One of the most common statements found in chemical contexts is that in any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases. (Section 19.2)
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with only one p orbital to form two hybridized atomic orbitals.
A conformation of cyclohexane that is lower in energy than a boat conformation but higher in energy than a chair conformation.
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