 2.1: How does quantitative information differ from qualitative information?
 2.2: What is a hypothesis?
 2.3: a. What is a model in the scientific sense? b. How does a model dif...
 2.4: Why is it important for a measurement system to have an internation...
 2.5: How does a quantity differ from a unit? Use two examples to explain...
 2.6: List the seven SI base units and the quantities they represent.
 2.7: What is the numerical equivalent of each of the following SI prefix...
 2.8: Identify the SI unit that would be most appropriate for expressing ...
 2.9: Identify the SI unit that would be most appropriate for measuring t...
 2.10: Explain why the second is not defined by the length of the day.
 2.11: a. What is a derived unit? b. What is the SIderived unit for area?
 2.12: a. List two SIderived units for volume. b. List two nonSI units f...
 2.13: a. Why are the units used that are to express the densities of gase...
 2.14: a. Which of the solids listed in Table 4 will float on water? b. Wh...
 2.15: a. Define conversion factor. b. Explain how conversion factors are ...
 2.16: What is the volume, in cubic meters, of a rectangular solid that is...
 2.17: Find the density of a material, given that a 5.03 g sample occupies...
 2.18: What is the mass of a sample of material that has a volume of 55.1 ...
 2.19: A sample of a substance that has a density of 0.824 g/mL has a mass...
 2.20: How many grams are in 882 xg? (Hint: See Sample B.)
 2.21: Calculate the number of milliliters in 0.603 L.
 2.22: The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. a. What is the volume, in cubic ...
 2.23: a. Find the number of kilometers in 92.25 m. b. Convert the answer ...
 2.24: Compare accuracy and precision.
 2.25: a. Write the equation that is used to calculate percentage error. b...
 2.26: How is the average for a set of values calculated?
 2.27: What is meant by a mass measurement expressed in this form: 4.6 g 0...
 2.28: Suppose a graduated cylinder were not correctly calibrated. How wou...
 2.29: Round each of the following measurements to the number of significa...
 2.30: State the rules governing the number of significant figures that re...
 2.31: What is the general form for writing numbers in scientific notation?
 2.32: a. By using x and y, state the general equation for quantities that...
 2.33: a. State the general equation for quantities, x and y, that are inv...
 2.34: Arrange in the correct order the following four basic steps for fin...
 2.35: A student measures the mass of a sample as 9.67 g. Calculate the pe...
 2.36: A handbook gives the density of calcium as 1.54 glcm3. Based on lab...
 2.37: What is the percentage error of a length measurement of 0.229 cm if...
 2.38: How many significant figures are in each of the following measureme...
 2.39: Calculate the sum of 6.078 g and 0.3329 g.
 2.40: Subtract 7.11 cm from 8.2 cm. (Hint: See Sample E.)
 2.41: What is the product of 0.8102 m and 3.44 m?
 2.42: Divide 94.20 g by 3.167 22 mL.
 2.43: Write the following numbers in scientific notation. a. 0.000 673 0 ...
 2.44: The following numbers are in scientific notation. Write them in ord...
 2.45: Perform the following operation. Express the answer in scientific n...
 2.46: A sample of a certain material has a mass of 2.03 x 103 g. Calcula...
 2.47: A man finds that he has a mass of 100.6 kg. He goes on a diet, and ...
 2.48: A large office building is 1.07 x 102 m long, 31 m wide, and 4.25 x...
 2.49: An object has a mass of 57.6 g. Find the object's density, given th...
 2.50: A lab worker measures the mass of some sucrose as 0.947 mg. Convert...
 2.51: A student calculates the density of iron as 6.80 g/cm3by using lab ...
 2.52: Find the table of properties for Group 1 elements in the Elements H...
 2.53: Use the radius of a sodium atom from the Elements Handbook to calcu...
 2.54: a. A block of sodium that has the measurements 3.00 cm x 5.00 cm x ...
 2.55: How does the metric system, which was once a standard for measureme...
 2.56: What are ISO 9000 standards? How do they affect industry on an inte...
 2.57: Performance Obtain three metal samples from your teacher. Determine...
 2.58: Use the data from the Nutrition Facts label below to answer the fol...
Solutions for Chapter 2: Measurements and Calculations
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry  1st Edition
ISBN: 9780030735462
Solutions for Chapter 2: Measurements and Calculations
Get Full SolutionsSince 58 problems in chapter 2: Measurements and Calculations have been answered, more than 16516 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 2: Measurements and Calculations includes 58 full stepbystep solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Modern Chemistry, edition: 1. Modern Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780030735462.

acidic oxide (acidic anhydride)
An oxide that either reacts with a base to form a salt or with water to form an acid. (Section 22.5)

beta (b) pleated sheet
For proteins, a feature of secondary structure that forms when two or more protein chains line up sidebyside.

Birch reduction
A reaction in which benzene is reduced to give 1,4cyclohexadiene.

blocking group
A group that can be readily installed and uninstalled. Used for regiochemical control during synthesis.

Carboxyl group (Section 1.3D)
A !COOH group.

Chair conformation
The most stable nonplanar conformation of a cyclohexane ring; all bond angles are approximately 109.5°, and all bonds on adjacent carbons are staggered.

Charles’ and GayLussac’s law.
See Charles’ law.

disrotatory
In electrocyclicreactions, a type of rotation in which the orbitalsbeing used to form the new s bond must rotate in opposite directions (one rotates clockwise while the other rotates counterclockwise).

element
A substance consisting of atoms of the same atomic number. Historically defined as a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. (Sections 1.1 and 1.2)

Estrogen
A steroid hormone, such as estrone and estradiol, that mediates the development of sexual characteristics in females.

ionizing radiation
Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule, thereby ionizing it. (Section 21.9)

law of definite proportions
A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure substance is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of constant composition. (Section 1.2)

nucleic acids
Polymers of high molecular weight that carry genetic information and control protein synthesis. (Section 24.10)

Optically active
Refers to a compound that rotates the plane of planepolarized light

period
The row of elements that lie in a horizontal row in the periodic table. (Section 2.5)

polysaccharides
Polymers made up of repeating monosaccharide units linked together by glycoside bonds.

scis
A conformation of a conjugated diene in which the disposition of the two p bonds with regard to the connecting single bond is cislike (a dihedral angle of 0°).

Sigma (s) molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated between two nuclei, along the axis joining them, and is cylindrically symmetrical

sulfonation
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction in which an SO3H group is installed on an aromatic ring.

Transfer RNA (tRNA
A ribonucleic acid that carries a specifi c amino acid to the site of protein synthesis on ribosomes