- 188.8.131.52: (a) Draw a Newman projection for each staggered and eclipsed confor...
- 184.108.40.206: Repeat the analysis in 2.3 for either one of the terminal CC bonds ...
- 220.127.116.11: (a) Use the procedures described in this section to draw the line-a...
- 18.104.22.168: (a) Using models when necessary, draw a Newman projection and a saw...
Solutions for Chapter 2.3: CONFORmATIONS OF ALKANES
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 6th Edition
Polymerization that occurs through coupling of monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction. (Section 12.8)
A conformation about a single bond in which two groups on adjacent carbons lie at a dihedral angle of 180°.
beta (b) pleated sheet
For proteins, a feature of secondary structure that forms when two or more protein chains line up side-by-side.
concentration of a solution.
The amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. (4.5)
coordinate covalent bond.
A bond in which the pair of electrons is supplied by one of the two bonded atoms; also called a dative bond. (9.9)
The region of an IR spectrum that contains signals resulting from the vibrational excitation of most single bonds (stretching and bending).
Gibbs free energy change (DG°)
The energy that dictates the position of chemical equilibria and rates of chemical reactions. A thermodynamic function of enthalpy, entropy, and temperature, given by the equation DG° 5 DH° 2 TDS°. If DG° , 0, the position of equilibria for the reaction favors products. If DG° . 0, the position of equilibria favors reactants.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Plasma particles, density 1.06–1.21 g/mL, consisting of approximately 33% proteins, 30% cholesterol, 29% phospholipids, and 8% triglycerides.
An abbreviated way to draw structural formulas in which vertices and line endings represent carbons
A device inwhich a compound is first vaporized and convertedinto ions, which are then separated anddetected.
Anything that occupies space and has mass; the physical material of the universe. (Section 1.1)
molar heat capacity
The heat required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by 1 °C. (Section 5.5)
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are approximately coplanar.
The negative log in base 10 of the aquated hydrogen ion concentration: pH = -log3H+4. (Section 16.4)
Esterlike derivatives of phosphoric acid.
The closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement. (Section 1.5)
One of the four arrow-pushing patterns for ionic reactions.
smectic liquid crystalline phase
A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned along their long axes and arranged in sheets, with the ends of the molecules aligned. There are several different kinds of smectic phases. (Section 12.8)
A reaction that obeys conservation of orbital symmetry.
A geometry adopted by an atom with a steric number of 3. All three groups lie in one plane and are separated by 120°.
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