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Solutions for Chapter 6.4: mixtures of enantiomers
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 6th Edition
The closeness of a measurement to the true value of the quantity that is measured. (1.8)
A resonance-stabilized cation with the structure [RC"O]1 or [ArC"O]1. The positive charge is delocalized over both the carbonyl carbon and the carbonyl oxygen.
A neutral molecule with nonadjacent positive and negative charges. An example of a betaine is the intermediate formed by addition of a Wittig reagent to an aldehyde or ketone
dextrorotatory, or merely dextro or d
A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the right (clockwise). (Section 23.4)
A bimolecular eliminationreaction.eclipsed conformation (Sect. 4.7): A conformationin which groups are eclipsing each other in aNewman projection.
A reaction that occurs between chlorobenzene and either NaOH (at high temperature) or NaNH2.
A graph showing the changes in energy that occur during a chemical reaction; energy is plotted on the vertical axis, and reaction progress is plotted on the horizontal axis. Also called a reaction coordinate diagram
The resonance-stabilized conjugate base of a ketone, aldehyde, or ester.
Measures chaos versus order and chaos is favorable
A state that is achieved when a compound absorbs energy.
A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is lower than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an exergonic reaction favors products.
The practice in which water laden with sand and other materials is pumped at high pressure into rock formations to release natural gas and other petroleum materials. (Section 18.4)
Gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit infrared radiation (radiant heat), “trapping” heat in the atmosphere. (Section 18.2)
Any b-elimination that occurs preferentially to give the less substituted alkene as the major product.
The attractive interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to an atom of high electronegativity (most commonly O or N) and a lone pair of electrons on another atom of high electronegativity (again, most commonly O or N).
In 1H NMR spectroscopy, the area under a signal indicates the number of protons giving rise to the signal.
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution
A reaction in which a nucleophile, most commonly a halogen, on an aromatic ring is replaced by another nucleophile.
The net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater solute concentration. (Section 13.5)
An ion in which oxygen bears a positive charge.
Pauli exclusion principle
The rule that states that an atomic orbital or molecular orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons with opposite spin.