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Solutions for Chapter 20.3: spectroscopy of carboxylic acids
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 6th Edition
Any substituent on a benzene ring that causes the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution to be greater than that for benzene.
An SR group.
An electrode at which oxidation occurs. (Section 20.3)
An addition reaction in which a hydrogen atom is installed at the more substituted vinylic position and another group (such as a halogen) is installed at the less substituted vinylic position.
base-dissociation constant (Kb)
An equilibrium constant that expresses the extent to which a base reacts with solvent water, accepting a proton and forming OH-1aq2. (Section 16.7)
A high-energy intermediate formed during the elimination-addition reaction that occurs between chlorobenzene and either NaOH (at high temperature) or NaNH2.
An elementary reaction that involves two molecules. (Section 14.6)
An electrode at which reduction occurs. (Section 20.3)
A reaction (generally involving radicals) in which one chemical entity can ultimately cause a chemical transformation for thousands of molecules.
The quantity of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. (Section 4.5)
Refers to the steric strain arising from interaction between an axial substituent and an axial hydrogen (or other group) on the same side of a chair conformation of a cyclohexane ring
Electrically charged atom or group of atoms (polyatomic ion); ions can be positively or negatively charged, depending on whether electrons are lost (positive) or gained (negative) by the atoms. (Section 2.7)
A group capable ofseparating from a compound.
localized lone pair
A lone pair thatis not participating in resonance.
The specifi c rotation of a mixture of enantiomers divided by the specifi c rotation of the enantiomerically pure substance (expressed as a percent). Optical purity is numerically equal to enantiomeric excess, but experimentally determined.
Esterlike derivatives of phosphoric acid.
A unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction.
A compound that is similar in structure to an ether, but the oxygen atom has been replaced with a sulfur atom. Also called a thioether.
An addition reaction in which two groups are added to the same face of a p bond.
a !CH"CH2 group