- 126.96.36.199: Draw the structure of each of the following quaternary ammonium sal...
- 188.8.131.52: Explain why the quaternary ammonium salt A can be isolated in optic...
Solutions for Chapter 23.6: Quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 6th Edition
Delocalized electrons move freely through “bands” formed by overlapping molecular orbitals. (21.3)
A process by which molecular oxygen is used to convert food into CO2, water, and energy.
colloids (colloidal dispersions)
Mixtures containing particles larger than normal solutes but small enough to remain suspended in the dispersing medium. (Section 13.6)
All nonvalence electrons in an atom. (8.2)
Dalton’s law of partial pressures.
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is just the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone. (5.6)
The energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion. (Section 7.5)
The expression that describes the relationship among the concentrations (or partial pressures) of the substances present in a system at equilibrium. The numerator is obtained by multiplying the concentrations of the substances on the product side of the equation, each raised to a power equal to its coefficient in the chemical equation. The denominator similarly contains the concentrations of the substances on the reactant side of the equation. (Section 15.2)
A bond that results from the force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
The concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent; abbreviated m. (Section 13.4)
The mass of one mole of a substance in grams; it is numerically equal to the formula weight in atomic mass units. (Section 3.4)
A naturally occurring combustible liquid composed of hundreds of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. (Section 5.8)
A nuclear decay process where a positron, a particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge, symbol 0+1e, or b+ is emitted from the nucleus. (Section 21.1)
A reaction that occurs between substances in solution in which one of the products is insoluble. (Section 4.2)
pressure–volume (PV) work
Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)
Replacing this hydrogen by deuterium gives a chiral center with an R confi guration
A process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction, as written or described, without needing to be driven by an outside source of energy. A process may be spontaneous even though it is very slow. (Section 19.1)
A conformation in which nearby groups in a Newman projection have a dihedral angle of 60°.
A plant or animal lipid having the characteristic tetracyclic ring structure of the steroid nucleus, namely three sixmembered rings and one fi ve-membered ring.
Polymers that are hard at room temperature but soft when heated.
Strain that arises when nonbonded atoms separated by three bonds are forced from a staggered conformation to an eclipsed conformation. Torsional strain is also called eclipsed-interaction strain.