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Solutions for Chapter 25.6: HYDrolYSIS oF pHoSpHATe eSTerS AND ANHYDrIDeS
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 6th Edition
alpha (a) helix
For proteins, a feature of secondary structure that forms when a portion of the protein twists into a spiral.
atomic mass unit (amu).
A mass exactly equal to 1 12th the mass of one carbon-12 atom. (3.1)
A statement that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. (Section 10.3)
A statement that the volume of a gas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas. (Section 10.3)
A reaction in which a molecule, such as HCl, HBr, HI, or HOH, is split out or eliminated from adjacent carbons
The experimental measurement of heat produced in chemical and physical processes. (Section 5.5)
A compound containing a Cl group and a hydroxyl group (OH) on adjacent carbon atoms.
A reaction in which a carbonyl group is completely reduced and replaced with two hydrogen atoms.
The electrons that are not in the outermost shell of an atom. (Section 6.8)
Protein that does not exhibit normal biological activities. (25.3)
A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)
Triglycerides that are solids atroom temperature.
A characteristic group of atoms/bonds that possess a predictable chemical behavior.
Gibbs free energy change (DG°)
The energy that dictates the position of chemical equilibria and rates of chemical reactions. A thermodynamic function of enthalpy, entropy, and temperature, given by the equation DG° 5 DH° 2 TDS°. If DG° , 0, the position of equilibria for the reaction favors products. If DG° . 0, the position of equilibria favors reactants.
The equilibrium established between substances in two or more different phases, for example, between a gas and a solid or between a solid and a liquid. (Section 15.4)
A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate.
A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)
reducing agent, or reductant
The substance that is oxidized and thereby causes the reduction of some other substance in an oxidation–reduction reaction. (Section 20.1)
The study of the energy of chemical structures.
A neutral molecule with positive and negative charges on adjacent atoms