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Solutions for Chapter 4.9: How Specific Rotation Is Measured
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
When applying Woodward-Fieser rules, the groups attached to the chromophore.
A substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH2) when dissolved in water. (2.7)
In a Lewis structure a pair of electrons that is shared by two atoms. (Section 9.2)
A polymer that contains a large number of branches connected to the main chain of the polymer.
From the Greek, cheir meaning hand; an object that is not superposable on its mirror image; an object that has handedness.
A naturally occurring solid containing hydrocarbons of high molecular weight, as well as compounds containing sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. (Section 5.8)
The use of electrolysis to reduce or refine metals. (Section 20.9)
A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)
When orbitals of equal energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fi ll all of them completely, one electron is put in each before a second electron is added to any
A method for converting an alkene to an alcohol. The alkene is treated with borane (BH3) to give a trialkylborane, which is then oxidized with alkaline hydrogen peroxide to give an alcohol
A cyclic ester.
The energy required to separate completely the ions in an ionic solid. (Section 8.2)
An effect thatprevents the use of bases stronger than hydroxidewhen the solvent is water.
A plot of the relative abundance of ions versus their mass-to-charge ratio
A system for naming organic compounds.
A material that can be formed into particular shapes by application of heat and pressure. (Section 12.8)
A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)
A measure of the biological damage caused by radiation; rems = rads * RBE. (Section 21.9)
A polymerization in which chain growth occurs in a stepwise manner between difunctional monomers as, for example, between adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine to form nylon 66. Also called condensation polymerization.
Vibrational infrared region
A common type of spin-spin coupling involving the H atoms on two C atoms that are bonded to each other.