- 16.18.16: Starting with acetyl chloride, what neutral nucleophile would you u...
- 16.18.44: What alkyl bromide would you use in a Gabriel synthesis to prepare ...
- 16.18.17: a. What two amides are obtained from the reaction of acetyl chlorid...
- 16.18.45: Primary amines can also be prepared by the reaction of an alkyl hal...
- 16.18.18: Write the mechanism for each of the following reactions: a. the rea...
Solutions for Chapter 16.18: The Reactions of Acyl Chlorides
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
aldol addition reaction
A reaction that occurs when an aldehyde or ketone is attacked by an enolate ion. The product of an aldol addition reaction is always a b-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone.
An acid that is not a proton donor; an acid that is an electron pair acceptor in a Lewis acid-base reaction.
axis of symmetry
An axis about which a compound possesses rotational symmetry.
beta (b) pleated sheet
For proteins, a feature of secondary structure that forms when two or more protein chains line up side-by-side.
A conjugated diene or carbonyl is one in which the double bonds are separated by one single bond
In bond-line structures, agroup going behind the page.
dipole moment (m)
The amount of partial charge (d ) on either end of a dipole multiplied by the distance of separation (d): m=d × d
A class of lipids which includes leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins.
Fourier-transform NMR (FT-NMR)
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, a technique in which the sample is irradiated with a short pulse that covers the entire range of relevant rf frequencies.
A five-membered cyclic hemiacetal form of a carbohydrate.
An acetal that is obtained by treating the cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide with an alcohol under acid-catalyzed conditions.
An equation that is often employed to calculate the pH of buffered solutions: pH = pKa + log 3conjugated base4 3acid4
ignal splitting in NMR
Spin-spin coupling with adjacent nuclei split NMR signals depending on the extent of coupling and the number of adjacent equivalent nuclei.
The mass of the collection of atoms represented by the chemical formula for a molecule. (Section 3.3)
The NO2+ ion, which is present in a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid.
Possessing radioactivity, the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with accompanying emission of radiation. (Section 2.2; Chapter 21: Introduction)
One of the four arrow-pushing patterns for ionic reactions.
retro Diels-Alder reaction
The reverse of a Diels-Alder reaction, achieved at high temperature. A cyclohexene derivative is converted into a diene and a dienophile.
Sanger dideoxy method
A method developed by Frederick Sanger for sequencing DNA molecules