- 16.9.19: We have seen that it is necessary to use excess amine in the reacti...
- 16.9.20: Write a mechanism for each of the following reactions: a. the nonca...
- 16.9.21: a. State three factors cause the uncatalyzed hydrolysis of an ester...
- 16.9.22: List the following esters in order from most reactive to least reac...
Solutions for Chapter 16.9: The Reactions of Esters
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the value log (I0/I) where I0 is the intensity of the reference beam and I is the intensity of the sample beam.
An organic compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group 1¬OH2 for a hydrogen on a hydrocarbon. (Sections 2.9 and 24.4)
The product obtained when the aldehyde group of an aldose is oxidized.
antibonding molecular orbital.
A molecular orbital that is of higher energy and lower stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)
The mass of an atom in atomic mass units. (3.1)
A reaction in which benzene is reduced to give 1,4-cyclohexadiene.
A crystal lattice in which the lattice points are located at the center and corners of each unit cell. (Section 12.2)
A substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change in the process. (Section 14.7)
For a mixture containing two enantiomers, the difference between the percent concentration of the major enantiomer and the percent concentration of its mirror image.
exchange (metathesis) reaction
A reaction between compounds that when written as a molecular equation appears to involve the exchange of ions between the two reactants. (Section 4.2)
glass transition temperature (Tg)
The temperature at which noncrystalline polymers become very soft.
Chemistry that promotes the design and application of chemical products and processes that are compatible with human health and that preserve the environment. (Section 18.5)
heat of sublimation
The enthalpy change, ?H, for vaporization of a solid. (Section 11.4)
An !OH group
A reaction in which a nucleophile attacks a conjugated p system, resulting in a 1,4-addition.
Molar absorptivity (e)
The absorbance of a 1 M solution of a compound.
The percent of a substance that undergoes ionization on dissolution in water. The term applies to solutions of weak acids and bases. (Section 16.6)
Secondary structure of nucleic acids
The ordered arrangement of nucleic acid strands
Polymers that are formed under conditions in which the individual monomers react with each other to form oligomers, which are then joined together to form polymers.
A conformation of cyclohexane that is lower in energy than a boat conformation but higher in energy than a chair conformation.