- 16.19.46: Give two names for each of the following nitriles: a. CH3CH2CH2CN b...
- 16.19.47: Which alkyl halides form the carboxylic acids listed here after rea...
- 16.19.48: An amide with an NH 2 group can be dehydrated to a nitrile with thi...
Solutions for Chapter 16.19: Nitriles
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
A region of a polymer in which nearby chains are not linearly extended and are not parallel to one another.
The increase in energy associated with a bond angle that has deviated from the preferred angle of 109.5°.
An equation that relates the rate constant for a reaction to the frequency factor, A, the activation energy, Ea, and the temperature, T: k = Ae-Ea>RT. In its logarithmic form it is written ln k = -Ea>RT + ln A. (Section 14.5)
A reactive intermediate formed by b-elimination from adjacent carbon atoms of a benzene ring and having a triple bond in the benzene ring. The second p bond of the benzyne triple bond is formed by the weak overlap of coplanar 2p orbitals on adjacent carbons.
The rules used in naming substances. (Section 2.8)
Tools that are used for drawing resonance structures and for showing the flow of electron density during each step of a reaction mechanism.
A molecule containing an !S!S! group
Any process with a positive DH (the system receives energy from the surroundings).
Matter that has no fixed volume or shape; it conforms to the volume and shape of its container. (Section 1.2)
The unit in which frequency is measured: s 21 (read “per second”).
A cyclic amide.
The number of grams of solute in each 100 g of solution. (Section 13.4)
Molecular orbital (MO) theory
A theory of chemical bonding in which electrons in molecules occupy molecular orbitals that extend over the entire molecule and are formed by the combination of the atomic orbitals that make up the molecule
The net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater solute concentration. (Section 13.5)
A property that a substance possesses if it contains one or more unpaired electrons. A paramagnetic substance is drawn into a magnetic field. (Section 9.8)
pi (p) bond
A bond formed from adjacent, overlapping p orbitals.
Light for which all photons have the same polarization, generally formed by passing light through a polarizing filter.
A set of rules for specifying absolute confi guration about a chiral center; also called the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system
A measure of the energy absorbed from radiation by tissue or other biological material; 1 rad = transfer of 1 * 10-2 J of energy per kilogram of material. (Section 21.9)
In NMR spectroscopy, a signal that is comprised of only one peak.