- 18.16.35: Draw the product obtained by heating each pair of ketones in a basi...
- 18.16.36: What two carbonyl compounds are needed to synthesize each of the fo...
Solutions for Chapter 18.16: The Robinson Annulation
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
base-dissociation constant (Kb)
An equilibrium constant that expresses the extent to which a base reacts with solvent water, accepting a proton and forming OH-1aq2. (Section 16.7)
A state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. (14.1)
A compound containing a Cl group and a hydroxyl group (OH) on adjacent carbon atoms.
A reaction in which a carbonyl group is completely reduced and replaced with two hydrogen atoms.
The number of adjacent atoms to which an atom is directly bonded. In a complex the coordination number of the metal ion is the number of donor atoms to which it is bonded. (Sections 12.37 and 24.2)
A monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the !OH on its penultimate carbon to the right.
Electrophilic aromatic substitution
A reaction in which there is substitution of an electrophile, E1, for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a sample of matter by 1 °C (or 1 K). (Section 5.5)
The heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. (Section 5.6)
The combination of atomic orbitals of different types
An ion formed by the addition of an electron to a hydrogen atom: H-. (Section 7.7)
Lewis dot structure
The symbol of an element surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the valence shell of the atom
A metal complex in which the electrons are paired in lower-energy orbitals. (Section 23.6)
An electronwithdrawing group that directs the regiochemistry of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction such that the incoming electrophile is installed at the meta position.
The NO+ ion, which is formed when NaNO2 is treated with HCl.
The negative log in base 10 of the aquated hydrogen ion concentration: pH = -log3H+4. (Section 16.4)
A term used to designate the configuration of a chirality center, determined in the following way: Each of the four groups is assigned a priority, and the molecule is then rotated (if necessary) so that the #4 group is directed behind the page (on a dash). A clockwise sequence for 1-2-3 is designated as R.
Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation
A reaction that converts an alkene into an epoxide via a stereospecific pathway.
sp2 Hybrid orbital
A hybrid atomic orbital formed by the combination of one s atomic orbital and two 2p atomic orbitals.
Valence Bond Theory
A model of bonding that places electron pairs between adjacent atoms to create bonds.