- 19.2.29: What is the major product(s) of each of the following reactions? a....
- 19.2.2: If electrophilic addition to benzene is overall an endergonic react...
- 19.2.30: A student had prepared three ethyl-substituted benzaldehydes, but n...
- 19.2.31: When phenol is treated with Br 2 , a mixture of ortho-bromophenol, ...
Solutions for Chapter 19.2: How Benzene Reacts
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 7th Edition
A liquid mixture of constant composition with a boiling point that is different from that of any of its components.
A dispersion of particles of one substance (the dispersed phase) throughout a dispersing medium made of another substance. (12.8)
The minimum mass of fissionable material required to generate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. (19.5)
A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is higher than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an endergonic reaction favors starting materials
energy of activation
In an energy diagram, the height of the energy barrier (the hump) between the reactants and the products.
A substance added to a solution that changes color when the added solute has reacted with all the solute present in solution. The most common type of indicator is an acid–base indicator whose color changes as a function of pH. (Section 4.6)
isoelectric point (pI)
For an amino acid, the specific pH at which the concentration of the zwitterionic form reaches its maximum value.
A reaction for which the product distribution is determined by the relative rates at which the products are formed.
loss of a leaving group
One of the four arrow-pushing patterns for ionic reactions.
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with transition metals; these compounds contain the hydride ion, H-. (Section 22.2)
molal freezing-point-depression constant (Kf)
A constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the decrease in freezing point as a function of solution molality: ?Tf = -Kf m. (Section 13.5)
A building block of nucleic acids, consisting of d-ribose or 2-deoxy-d-ribose bonded to a heterocyclic aromatic amine base by a b-N-glycosidic bond
parts per billion (ppb)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
The special name given to the amide bond formed between the a-amino group of one amino acid and the a-carboxyl group of another amino acid
The ratio of the actual (experimental) yield of a product to its theoretical (calculated) yield, multiplied by 100. (Section 3.7)
The sign of the wave function at particular coordinates in space, either plus or minus. Phasing is often represented by colors, such as red or blue
A polymer in which each monomer unit is joined to the next by an amide bond, as, for example, nylon 66.
A reaction that can produce two or more constitutional isomers but nevertheless produces one as the major product.
The dissolving medium of a solution; it is normally the component of a solution present in the greater amount. (Section 4.1)
Groups that strongly activate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby significantly enhancing the rate of the reaction.