- 1.5.21: Which of the atoms in the molecular models in havea. three lone pai...
- 1.5.22: Change the following condensed structures to Kekul structures:a. CH...
- 1.5.23: Convert the models in to skeletal structures.
- 1.5.24: Draw the following orbitals:a. 3s orbital b. 4s orbital c. 3p orbital
Solutions for Chapter 1.5: Atomic Orbitals
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition
Element in which the 5f orbitals are only partially occupied. (Section 6.8)
Polymers that are formed via cationic addition, anionic addition, or free-radical addition.
alpha (a) position
The position immediately adjacent to a functional group.
Carbohydrates that differ in confi guration only at their anomeric carbons.
An sp3 -hybridized carbon bonded to a benzene ring
bonding atomic radius
The radius of an atom as defined by the distances separating it from other atoms to which it is chemically bonded. (Section 7.3)
The atom of a ligand that bonds to the metal. (Section 23.2)
elimination (of radicals)
In radical reaction mechanisms, a step in which a bond forms between the alpha (a) and beta (b) positions. As a result, a single bond at the b position is cleaved, causing the compound to fragment into two pieces.
An anion derived by loss of a hydrogen from a carbon alpha to a carbonyl group; the anion of an enol.
In mass spectrometry, when the molecular ion breaks apart into fragments.
The equilibrium established between reactant and product substances that are all in the same phase. (Section 15.4)
The gradual decrease in atomic and ionic radii with increasing atomic number among the lanthanide elements, atomic numbers 57 through 70. The decrease arises because of a gradual increase in effective nuclear charge through the lanthanide series. (Section 23.1)
A substance made up of many monosaccharide units joined together. (Section 24.8)
Quaternary (4°) ammonium ion
An ion in which nitrogen is bonded to four carbons and bears a positive charge
The gain of electrons. Alternatively, either the gain of hydrogen, loss of oxygen, or both
A conformation of a conjugated diene in which the disposition of the two p bonds with regard to the connecting single bond is cis-like (a dihedral angle of 0°).
A measure of the salt content of seawater, brine, or brackish water. It is equal to the mass in grams of dissolved salts present in 1 kg of seawater. (Section 18.3)
sigma (s) bond
A bond that is characterized by circular symmetry with respect to the bond axis.
Compounds containing silicon and oxygen, structurally based on SiO4 tetrahedra. (Section 22.10)
Reactions in which one group is replaced by another group.