- 4.11.33: The observed rotation of 2.0 g of a compound in 50 mL of solution i...
- 4.11.34: (S)-(+)-Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer used in man...
- 4.11.35: (+)-Mandelic acid has a specific rotation of +158. What would be th...
- 4.11.36: Naproxen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is the active ...
- 4.11.37: A solution prepared by mixing 10 mL of a 0.10 M solution of the R e...
Solutions for Chapter 4.11: Enantiomeric Excess
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry | 8th Edition
A reaction that achieves the installation of an alkyl group. For example, an SN2 reaction in which an alkyl group is connected to an attacking nucleophile.
Carbohydrates that differ in confi guration only at their anomeric carbons.
Antibonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electrons have a higher energy than they would in isolated atomic orbitals
Avogadro’s number (NA).
6.022 3 1023; the number of particles in a mole. (3.2)
A technique by which compounds are separated from each other based on a difference in the way they interact with the medium (the adsorbent) through which they are passed.
conjugate acid–base pair
An acid and a base, such as H2O and OH-, that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton. (Section 16.2)
An alkane whose structure contains a ring.
The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom or molecule (Section 6.8)
Protons that are not interchangeable by rotational symmetry but are interchangeable by reflectional symmetry.
The numerical value of the equilibrium-constant expression for a system at equilibrium. The equilibrium constant is most usually denoted by Kp for gas-phase systems or Kc for solution-phase systems. (Section 15.2)
A law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution, Sg, is proportional to the pressure of gas over the solution: Sg = kPg. (Section 13.3)
Atoms or groups on an atom that give an achiral molecule when one of the groups is replaced by another group. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of propane, for example, are homotopic. Replacing either one of them with deuterium gives 2-deuteropropane, which is achiral. Homotopic groups have identical chemical shifts under all conditions
An OH group.
A compound containing a five-membered ring that is similar to pyrrole but has one extra nitrogen atom at the 3 position.
Compounds that are very similar in structure to triglycerides, with the main difference being that one of the three fatty acid residues is replaced by a phosphoester group.
Replacing this hydrogen by deuterium gives a chiral center with an S confi guration
specific heat 1Cs2
The heat capacity of 1 g of a substance; the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 °C. (Section 5.5)
In IR spectroscopy, when two bonds are stretching in phase with each other.
The study of the energy of chemical structures.
Vibrational infrared region
A common type of spin-spin coupling involving the H atoms on two C atoms that are bonded to each other.