- 18.1: In the following reaction, identify whichelement is oxidized, and w...
- 18.2: In which of the following compounds or ionsis the oxidation state f...
- 18.3: Which of the following is not an oxidationreduction reaction?A 2Al(...
- 18.4: In the following reaction, identify theoxidizing agent and the redu...
- 18.5: Which of the following is true concerning thefollowing equation?Ag(...
- 18.6: The oxidizing agent in the lead storagebattery isA PbB PbO2C H2 S O...
- 18.7: The process in which electrical energy is usedto produce chemical e...
- 18.8: Label the following parts of the galvanic cell. anode cathode reduc...
- 18.9: The reaction Cu(s) N O3 (aq) nCu2(aq) NO(g) takes place in acidic s...
Solutions for Chapter 18: OxidationReduction Reactions and Electrochemistry
Full solutions for World Of Chemistry | 2nd Edition
An elimination reaction in which a proton from the beta (b) position is removed together with the leaving group, forming a double bond.
bonding molecular orbital.
A molecular orbital that is of lower energy and greater stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)
The lowest energy conformation for cyclohexane, in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5° and all hydrogen atoms are staggered.
A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single product. (4.4)
The pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state. (Section 11.4)
A method of problem solving in which units are carried through all calculations. Dimensional analysis ensures that the final answer of a calculation has the desired units. (Section 1.6)
In electrocyclicreactions, a type of rotation in which the orbitalsbeing used to form the new s bond must rotate in opposite directions (one rotates clockwise while the other rotates counterclockwise).
Atoms or groups on an atom that give a chiral center when one of the groups is replaced by another group. A pair of enantiomers results. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are enantiotopic. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol. Enantiotopic groups have identical chemical shifts in achiral environments but different chemical shifts in chiral environments.
Hydrogens that have the same chemical environment
heterolytic bond cleavage
Bond breaking that results in the formation of ions.
homolitic bond cleavage
Bond breaking that results in the formation of unchanged species called radicals.
A reaction in which the CRC bond of an alkene is cleaved to form two CRO bonds.
The amide linkage by which two amino acids are coupled together to form peptides.
The row of elements that lie in a horizontal row in the periodic table. (Section 2.5)
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid with two or more carbon-carbon double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain
A compound with a weak bond that undergoes homolytic bond cleavage with great ease, producing radicals that can initiate a radical chain process.
A method that chemists use to deal with the inadequacy of bond-line drawings.
smectic liquid crystalline phase
A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned along their long axes and arranged in sheets, with the ends of the molecules aligned. There are several different kinds of smectic phases. (Section 12.8)
A conformation of cyclohexane that is lower in energy than a boat conformation but higher in energy than a chair conformation.
Groups that weakly activate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby enhancing the rate of the reaction.