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Solutions for Chapter 13.1SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
The most common drawing style employed by organic chemists. All carbon atoms and most hydrogen atoms are implied but not explicitly drawn in a bond-line structure.
bonding molecular orbital.
A molecular orbital that is of lower energy and greater stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)
A thermodynamic cycle based on Hess’s law that relates the lattice energy of an ionic substance to its enthalpy of formation and to other measurable quantities. (Section 8.2)
A substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. (1.4)
A compound inwhich two carbon-carbon p bonds are separated from each other by exactly one s bond.
The region of an IR spectrum that contains signals that arise from double bonds, triple bonds, and X!H bonds.
The process of forming a diazonium salt by treating a primary amine with NaNO2 and HCl.
elimination (of radicals)
In radical reaction mechanisms, a step in which a bond forms between the alpha (a) and beta (b) positions. As a result, a single bond at the b position is cleaved, causing the compound to fragment into two pieces.
When treated with a strong base, a quaternary ammonium halide undergoes b-elimination by an E2 mechanism to give the less-substituted alkene as the major product
Compounds that are similar in structure to CFCs but also possess at least one C!Hbond.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy
A spectroscopic technique in which a compound is irradiated with infrared radiation, absorption of which causes covalent bonds to change from a lower vibration state to a higher one. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly valuable for determining the kinds of functional groups present in a molecule.
A compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to two carbons.
The arrangement in space of the atoms of a molecule. (Section 9.2)
A conversion of one kind of nucleus to another. (Section 21.3)
oxidation–reduction (redox) reaction
A chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of certain atoms change. (Section 4.4; Chapter 20: Introduction)
A compound that reduces another compound and in the process is itself oxidized. Sodium borohydride and lithium aluminum hydride are reducing agents.
The general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories, and laws. (Section 1.3)
The distribution among various wavelengths of the radiant energy emitted or absorbed by an object. (Section 6.3)
An atom, most commonly carbon, about which exchange of two groups produces a stereoisomer. Chiral centers are one type of stereocenter
A compound with two oppositely charged atoms adjacent to each other.
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