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Solutions for Chapter 3.3SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
A type of rearrangement in which an atom or group of atoms with its bonding electrons moves from one atom to an adjacent electron-defi cient atom.
Particles that are identical to helium-4 nuclei, consisting of two protons and two neutrons, symbol 4 2He or 4 2a. (Section 21.1)
A term used initially to classify benzene and its derivatives. More accurately, it is used to classify any compound that meets the Hückel criteria for aromaticity (Section 21.2A).
The electronic structure of a solid, defining the allowed ranges of energy for electrons in a solid. (Section 12.7)
The C “O double bond, a characteristic feature of several organic functional groups, such as ketones and aldehydes. (Section 24.4)
chemical shift (d)
In an NMR spectrum, the location of a signal, defined relative to the frequency of absorption of a reference compound, tetramethylsilane (TMS).
continuous-wave (CW) spectrometer
An NMR spectrometer that holds the magnetic field constant and slowly sweeps through a range of rf frequencies, monitoring which frequencies are absorbed.
Strands of a polymer that are generated when the polymer is heated, forced through small holes, and then cooled.
The joining of two light nuclei to form a more massive one. (Section 21.6)
A compound containing a halogen atom and a hydroxyl group on adjacent carbons; those containing Br and OH are bromohydrins, and those containing Cl and OH are chlorohydrins.
A rule stating that electrons occupy degenerate orbitals in such a way as to maximize the number of electrons with the same spin. In other words, each orbital has one electron placed in it before pairing of electrons in orbitals occurs. (Section 6.8)
A compound containing two hydroxyl groups (OH) connected to the same carbon atom.
Hückel criteria for aromaticity
To be aromatic, a monocyclic compound must have one 2p orbital on each atom of the ring, be planar or nearly so, and have (4n 1 2) p electrons in the cyclic arrangement of 2p orbitals
A compound containing a CRN bond.
A compound containing two carbon-carbon p bonds that are separated by two or more s bonds.
Compounds whose molecules have the same overall composition but different structures. (Sections 2.9 and 23.4)
A common name for a thiol; that is, any compound that contains an -SH (sulfhydryl) group
nematic liquid crystalline phase
A liquid crystal in which the molecules are aligned in the same general direction, along their long axes, but in which the ends of the molecules are not aligned. (Section 11.7)
A reaction in which the configuration of the product is dependent on the configuration of the starting material.
A rule stating that the major product of a b-elimination reaction is the most stable alkene; that is, it is the alkene with the greatest number of substituents on the carboncarbon double bond