- 5.13SE.1PE: Calculating an Enthalpy of Formation Using an Enthalpy of ReactionT...
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Solutions for Chapter 5.13SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
Steric interactions that occur between axial substituents in a chair conformation.
A hydrocarbon that lacks p bonds.
alpha (a) position
The position immediately adjacent to a functional group.
An atom or group of atoms bearing a negative charge.
Avogadro’s number (NA).
6.022 3 1023; the number of particles in a mole. (3.2)
The rules used in naming substances. (Section 2.8)
Confi gurational isomers
Isomers that differ by the confi guration of substituents on an atom. Refers to the arrangement of atoms about a stereocenter
The pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state. (Section 11.4)
Elements that are in the same column of the periodic table; elements within the same group or family exhibit similarities in their chemical behavior. (Section 2.5)
An equation that is often employed to calculate the pH of buffered solutions: pH = pKa + log 3conjugated base4 3acid4
Homolytic bond cleavage
Cleavage of a bond so that each fragment retains one electron; formation of radicals.
A polar group that has favorable interactions with water.
From the Greek, meaning water-loving.
ignal splitting in NMR
Spin-spin coupling with adjacent nuclei split NMR signals depending on the extent of coupling and the number of adjacent equivalent nuclei.
oxidizing agent, or oxidant
The substance that is reduced and thereby causes the oxidation of some other substance in an oxidation–reduction reaction. (Section 20.1)
An intermediate with a positively charged oxygen atom.
Pauli exclusion principle
The rule that states that an atomic orbital or molecular orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons with opposite spin.
Resonance in NMR spectroscopy
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a precessing nucleus and the resulting “fl ip” of its nuclear spin from the lower energy state to the higher energy state.
A bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction.
Groups that weakly deactivate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby decreasing the rate of the reaction.
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