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Solutions for Chapter 8.11SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
In IR spectroscopy, when two bonds are stretching out of phase with each other.
A compound that can speed up the rate of a reaction without itself being consumed by the reaction.
In an acid-base reaction, the product that results when an acid is deprotonated.
In electrocyclic reactions,a type of rotation in which the orbitals being used to form the new s bond must rotate in the same way.
A bond formed between two or more atoms by a sharing of electrons. (Section 8.1)
A compound containing two adjacent p bonds.
The SI unit of energy, 1 kg@m2 >s2. A related unit is the calorie: 4.184 J = 1 cal. (Section 5.1)
lambda max (lmax)
In UVVis spectroscopy, the wavelength of maximum absorption.
In the addition of HX, H2O, or ROH to an alkene, hydrogen adds to the carbon of the double bond having the greater number of hydrogens.
Refers to groups occupying 1,3-positions on a benzene ring.
molal freezing-point-depression constant (Kf)
A constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the decrease in freezing point as a function of solution molality: ?Tf = -Kf m. (Section 13.5)
The common name for bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane.
Refers to groups occupying l,4-positions on a benzene ring
Light for which all photons have the same polarization, generally formed by passing light through a polarizing filter.
The branch of science that studies the interaction of matter and radiation.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A polynucleotide in which ribose is the sugar component. (Section 24.10)
A term used to designate the configuration of a chirality center, determined in the following way: Each of the four groups is assigned a priority, and the molecule is then rotated (if necessary) so that the #4 group is directed behind the page (on a dash). A counterclockwise sequence for 1-2-3 is designated as S.
second law of thermodynamics
A statement of our experience that there is a direction to the way events occur in nature. When a process occurs spontaneously in one direction, it is nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. It is possible to state the second law in many different forms, but they all relate back to the same idea about spontaneity. One of the most common statements found in chemical contexts is that in any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases. (Section 19.2)
A reaction for which the ratio of products is determined solely by the distribution of energy among the products.
A geometry adopted by an atom with a steric number of 3. All three groups lie in one plane and are separated by 120°.
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