Solutions for Chapter 18.2SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
A compound that possesses a carbon-carbon double bond.
A reaction for which the reagent necessary to catalyze the reaction is produced by the reaction itself.
A substance capable of donating a proton. (4.3)
Acids that contain the carboxyl group —COOH. (24.4)
Theresulting net attraction between two dipoles.
A state of a system at higher energy than the ground state.
Vibrations in the region 1500 to 400 cm21 of an IR spectrum are complex and diffi cult to analyze but are characteristic for different molecules.
Fischer esterifi cation
The process of forming an ester by refl uxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst, commonly H2SO4, ArSO3H, or HCl
A conformation that exhibits a gauche interaction.
Two groups connected to the same carbon atom. For example, a geminal dihalide is a compound with two halogens connected to the same carbon atom.
Gibbs free energy
A thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy, in the form G = H - TS. For a change occurring at constant temperature and pressure, the change in free energy is ?G = ?H - T?S. (Section 19.5)
The equilibrium that is established between an enol and a ketone in either acid-catalyzed or basecatalyzed conditions.
Any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by accepting a pair of electrons.
Molecules with low molecular weights, which can be joined together (polymerized) to form a polymer. (Section 12.8)
Pauli exclusion principle
The rule that states that an atomic orbital or molecular orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons with opposite spin.
In NMR spectroscopy, a signal that is comprised of five peaks.
The total of (single bonds + lone pairs) for an atom in a compound.
An addition reaction in which two groups are added to the same face of a p bond.
The right side of an NMRspectrum.
A process that involves the removal of a carbon atom from an aldose. The aldehyde group is first converted to a cyanohydrin, followed by loss of HCN in the presence of a base.
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