- 19.7SE.1PE: Calculating Standard Free-Energy Change from Free Energies of Forma...
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Solutions for Chapter 19.7SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
Organic bases that have the functional group —NR2, where R may be H, an alkyl group, or an aromatic group. (24.4)
Instability that arises when a planar ring of continuously overlapping p orbitals contains 4n p electrons.
antibonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated outside the region between the two nuclei of bonded atoms. Such orbitals, designated as s* or p*, are less stable (of higher energy) than bonding molecular orbitals. (Section 9.7)
A high-energy intermediate formed during the elimination-addition reaction that occurs between chlorobenzene and either NaOH (at high temperature) or NaNH2.
The distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule. (9.4)
A polyhydroxyaldehyde, a polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis.
A term describing a molecule or an ion that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. (Sections 23.4 and 24.5)
Loss of CO2 from a carboxyl group.
The number of full cycles of a wave that pass a given point in a second, and reported in hertz (Hz), which has the units s21
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that installs an alkyl group on an aromatic ring.
Any b-elimination that occurs preferentially to give the less substituted alkene as the major product.
nonmetallic elements (nonmetals)
Elements in the upper right corner of the periodic table; nonmetals differ from metals in their physical and chemical properties. (Section 2.5)
Pauli exclusion principle
The rule that states that an atomic orbital or molecular orbital can accommodate a maximum of two electrons with opposite spin.
A large molecule of high molecular mass, formed by the joining together, or polymerization, of a large number of molecules of low molecular mass. The individual molecules forming the polymer are called monomers. (Sections 12.1 and 12.8)
Primary structure of proteins
The sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain, read from the N-terminal amino acid to the C-terminal amino acid.
Hydrolysis of an ester in the presence of a base. (Section 24.4)
A lipid that does not undergo hydrolysis in aqueous acid or base to produce smaller fragments.
The geometry of an atom with four bonds separated from each other by 109.5°.
A solution prepared by dissolving Ag2O in aqueous ammonia; used for selective oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid.
The right side of an NMRspectrum.