- 19.9SE.1PE: Determining the Effect of Temperature on SpontaneityThe Haber proce...
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Solutions for Chapter 19.9SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
A neutral molecule that contains a carbon atom surrounded by only six valence electrons (R2C:).
Center of symmetry
A point so situated that identical components of an object are located on opposite sides and equidistant from that point along any axis passing through it.
For a substitutedaromatic ring, the effect of an electronwithdrawingsubstituent that decreases therate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
A reaction that involves the addition of X2 (either Br2 or Cl2) across an alkene.
Heat of combustion (DH0 )
Standard heat of combustion is the heat released when one mole of a substance in its standard state (gas, liquid, solid) is oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water.
high-resolution mass spectrometry
A technique that involves the use of a detector that can measure the m/z values to four decimal places.This technique allows for the determination of the molecular formula of an unknown compound.
A protein, particularly rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine, that is found associated with DNA molecules
Homolytic bond cleavage
Cleavage of a bond so that each fragment retains one electron; formation of radicals.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy
A spectroscopic technique in which a compound is irradiated with infrared radiation, absorption of which causes covalent bonds to change from a lower vibration state to a higher one. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly valuable for determining the kinds of functional groups present in a molecule.
A type of isomerism involving keto (from ketone) and enol tautomers
lanthanide (rare earth) element
Element in which the 4f subshell is only partially occupied. (Sections 6.8 and 6.9)
A !CH2! group.
A compound with molecular formula HONO.
A compound that contains an !OH bonded to a benzene ring; a benzenol.
A carbohydrate that is oxidized upon treatment with Tollens’ reagent, Fehling’s reagent, or Benedict’s reagent.
A term used to designate the configuration of a chirality center, determined in the following way: Each of the four groups is assigned a priority, and the molecule is then rotated (if necessary) so that the #4 group is directed behind the page (on a dash). A counterclockwise sequence for 1-2-3 is designated as S.
sp2 Hybrid orbital
A hybrid atomic orbital formed by the combination of one s atomic orbital and two 2p atomic orbitals.
The difference in energy between staggered and eclipsed conformations (for example, in ethane).
An ether(R!O!R) where the two R groups are notidentical.
Valence Bond Theory
A model of bonding that places electron pairs between adjacent atoms to create bonds.