- 20.4SE.1PE: Describing a Voltaic CellThe oxidation–reduction reactionCr2O7 2–(a...
- 20.4SE.2PE: Describing a Voltaic CellThe oxidation–reduction reactionCr2O72–(aq...
Solutions for Chapter 20.4SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
Any reaction in which a new carbon-carbon bond to an alkyl group is formed.
A rule that determines the order in which orbitals are filled by electrons. Specifically, the lowest energy orbital is filled first.
In a bicyclic system, the carbon atoms where the rings are fused together.
A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton donor. (Section 16.2)
A polymer that is formed under conditions in which the monomers do not react directly with each other, but rather, each monomer is added to the growing chain, one at a time.
The most stable nonplanar conformation of a cyclohexane ring; all bond angles are approximately 109.5°, and all bonds on adjacent carbons are staggered.
A state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. (14.1)
A theory that accounts for the colors and the magnetic and other properties of transition-metal complexes in terms of the splitting of the energies of metal ion d orbitals by the electrostatic interaction with the ligands. (Section 23.6)
An alkane whose structure contains a ring.
Experimental conditions under which the composition of the product mixture is determined by the relative rates of formation of each product.
In nomenclature, a numberused to identify the location of a substituent.
The ratio of the number of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles of all components; abbreviated X, with a subscript to identify the component. (Section 10.6)
A form of isomerism in which the two forms of a compound (stereoisomers) are nonsuperimposable mirror images. (Section 23.4)
Planck constant (h)
The constant that relates the energy and frequency of a photon, E = hn. Its value is 6.626 * 10-34 J@s. (Section 6.2)
The determination of the presence or absence of a particular substance in a mixture. (Section 17.7)
rare earth element
See lanthanide element. (Sections 6.8 and 6.9)
Rate determining step
The step in a multistep reaction sequence that crosses the highest energy barrier.
An ether(R!O!R) where the two R groups are notidentical.
van der Waals forces
A group of intermolecular attractive forces including dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and induced dipole-induced dipole (dispersion) forces