- 20.9SE.1PE: Determining SpontaneityUse Table 20.1 to determine whether the foll...
- 20.9SE.2PE: Determining SpontaneityUse Table to determine whether the following...
Solutions for Chapter 20.9SE: Chemistry: The Central Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition
Compounds containing a nitrogen atom that is connected to one, two, or three alkyl or aryl groups.
The distance between the centers of two bonded atoms. (Section 8.3)
Ionic compounds containing the C2 22 or C42 ion. (22.3)
A CRO bond. carboxylic acid derivative (Sect. 21.6): A compound that is similar in structure to a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) but the OH group of the carboxylic acid has been replaced with a different group, Z, where Z is a heteroatom such as Cl, O, N, etc. Nitriles (R!C#N) are also considered to be carboxylic acid derivatives because they have the same oxidation state as carboxylic acids.
A shift of an equilibrium induced by an ion common to the equilibrium. For example, added Na2SO4 decreases the solubility of the slightly soluble salt BaSO4, or added NaF decreases the percent ionization of HF. (Section 17.1)
electrophilic aromatic substitution
A substitution reaction in which an aromatic proton is replaced by an electrophile and the aromatic moiety is preserved.
A compound containing an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms.
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that installs an acyl group on an aromatic ring.
An electrophilic aromatic substitution in which a hydrogen of an aromatic ring is replaced by an alkyl or acyl group.
For substituted cycloalkanes, a drawing style used to clearly identify which groups are above the ring and which groups are below the ring. (See also Sect. 4.14.)
A special type of dipole-dipole interaction that occurs between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom that is connected to another electronegative atom.
metathesis (exchange) reaction
A reaction in which two substances react through an exchange of their component ions: AX + BY ¡ AY + BX. Precipitation and acid–base neutralization reactions are examples of metathesis reactions. (Section 4.2)
Points in an atom at which the electron density is zero. For example, the node in a 2s orbital is a spherical surface. (Section 6.6)
Valence electrons not involved in forming covalent bonds. Also called unshared pairs or lone pairs.
plane of symmetry
A plane that bisects a compound into two halves that are mirror images of each other.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid with two or more carbon-carbon double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain
Possessing radioactivity, the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus with accompanying emission of radiation. (Section 2.2; Chapter 21: Introduction)
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with only one p orbital to form two hybridized atomic orbitals.
spin magnetic quantum number 1ms2
A quantum number associated with the electron spin; it may have values of +12 or -12. (Section 6.7)
Tertiary structure of proteins
The three-dimensional arrangement in space of all atoms in a single polypeptide chain.