- Chapter 1: Chemistry: The Study of Change
- Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
- Chapter 11: Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids
- Chapter 12: Physical Properties of Solutions
- Chapter 13: Chemical Kinetics
- Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium
- Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
- Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria
- Chapter 17: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
- Chapter 18: Electrochemistry
- Chapter 19: Nuclear Chemistry
- Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
- Chapter 20: Chemistry in the Atmosphere
- Chapter 21: Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals
- Chapter 22: Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds
- Chapter 23: Transition Metals Chemistry and Coordination Compounds
- Chapter 24: Organic Chemistry
- Chapter 25: Synthetic and Natural Organic Polymers
- Chapter 3: Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions
- Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
- Chapter 5: Gases
- Chapter 6: Thermochemistry
- Chapter 7: Quantum Theory and the Electronic Structure of Atoms
- Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements
- Chapter 9: Chemical Bonding I Basic Concepts
Chemistry 12th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Chemistry | 12th Edition
See beta rays.
boiling-point elevation (DTb).
The boiling point of the solution (Tb) minus the boiling point of the pure solvent (T° b). (12.6)
Difference in electrical potential between the anode and the cathode of a galvanic cell. (18.2)
colloids (colloidal dispersions)
Mixtures containing particles larger than normal solutes but small enough to remain suspended in the dispersing medium. (Section 13.6)
A polymer containing two or more different monomers. (25.2)
coupling (of protons)
A phenomenon observed most commonly for nonequivalent protons connected to adjacent carbon atoms in which the multiplicity of each signal is affected by the other.
A theory that accounts for the colors and the magnetic and other properties of transition-metal complexes in terms of the splitting of the energies of metal ion d orbitals by the electrostatic interaction with the ligands. (Section 23.6)
In NMR spectroscopy, a signal that is comprised of two peaks.
See voltaic cell. (Section 20.3)
ignal splitting in NMR
Spin-spin coupling with adjacent nuclei split NMR signals depending on the extent of coupling and the number of adjacent equivalent nuclei.
Any molecular vibration that leads to a substantial change in dipole moment and is observed in an IR spectrum.
Radiation that has sufficient energy to remove an electron from a molecule, thereby ionizing it. (Section 21.9)
Nucleophilic acyl substitution
A reaction in which a nucleophile bonded to the carbon of an acyl group is replaced by another nucleophile.
The specifi c rotation of a mixture of enantiomers divided by the specifi c rotation of the enantiomerically pure substance (expressed as a percent). Optical purity is numerically equal to enantiomeric excess, but experimentally determined.
pi (p) bond
A bond formed from adjacent, overlapping p orbitals.
A particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge, 0 +1e, or b+. (Section 21.1)
A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry, pressure is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm) or torr: 760 torr = 1 atm; in SI units pressure is expressed in pascals (Pa). (Section 10.2)
A bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction.
tertiary alkyl halide
An organohalide in which the alpha (a) position is connected to three alkyl groups.
Williamson ether synthesis
A method for preparing an ether from an alkoxide ion and an alkyl halide (via an SN2 process).