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Solutions for Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby

Full solutions for Chemistry | 12th Edition

ISBN: 9780078021510

Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby

Solutions for Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements

Solutions for Chapter 8
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 12
Author: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby
ISBN: 9780078021510

Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780078021510. Chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements includes 155 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 12. Since 155 problems in chapter 8: Periodic Relationships Among the Elements have been answered, more than 82547 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Atactic polymer

    A polymer with completely random confi gurations at the chiral centers along its chain, as, for example, atactic polypropylene

  • atomic orbital

    A three-dimensional plot of y2 of a wavefunction. It is a region of space that can accommodate electron density.

  • atomic radius

    An estimate of the size of an atom. See bonding atomic radius. (Section 7.3)

  • base-dissociation constant (Kb)

    An equilibrium constant that expresses the extent to which a base reacts with solvent water, accepting a proton and forming OH-1aq2. (Section 16.7)

  • Bredt’s rule

    A rule that states that it is not possible for a bridgehead carbon of a bicyclic system to possess a carbon carbon double bond if it involves a trans p bond being incorporated in a ring comprised of fewer than eight atoms.

  • chemical equilibrium.

    A state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. (14.1)

  • Conjugated

    A conjugated diene or carbonyl is one in which the double bonds are separated by one single bond

  • curved arrows

    Tools that are used for drawing resonance structures and for showing the flow of electron density during each step of a reaction mechanism.

  • dextrorotatory, or merely dextro or d

    A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the right (clockwise). (Section 23.4)

  • divalent

    An element that forms two bonds, such as oxygen.

  • Fischer projections

    A drawing style that is often used when dealing with compounds bearing multiple chirality centers, especially for carbohydrates. (See also Sect. 5.7.)

  • irreversible process

    A process that cannot be reversed to restore both the system and its surroundings to their original states. Any spontaneous process is irreversible. (Section 19.1)

  • limiting reactant (limiting reagent)

    The reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric quantity in a mixture of reactants; the amount of product that can form is limited by the complete consumption of the limiting reactant. (Section 3.7)

  • Meso compound

    An achiral compound possessing two or more chiral centers that also has chiral isomers

  • Phasing

    The sign of the wave function at particular coordinates in space, either plus or minus. Phasing is often represented by colors, such as red or blue

  • Polyurethane

    A polymer containing the !NHCO2! group as a repeating unit

  • saturated solution

    A solution in which undissolved solute and dissolved solute are in equilibrium. (Section 13.2)

  • scientific law

    A concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a wide range of observations and experiences. (Section 1.3)

  • sp3-hybridized orbitals

    Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with three p orbitals to form four hybridized atomic orbitals.

  • Tollens’ reagent

    A solution prepared by dissolving Ag2O in aqueous ammonia; used for selective oxidation of an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid.