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Solutions for Chapter 17: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium

Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby

Full solutions for Chemistry | 12th Edition

ISBN: 9780078021510

Chemistry | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780078021510 | Authors: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby

Solutions for Chapter 17: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium

Solutions for Chapter 17
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 12
Author: Raymond Chang; Kenneth Goldsby
ISBN: 9780078021510

Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780078021510. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 12. Chapter 17: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium includes 116 full step-by-step solutions. Since 116 problems in chapter 17: Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium have been answered, more than 236304 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • activate

    For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.

  • Acylation

    The process of introducing an acyl group, RCO! or ArCO!, onto an organic molecule.

  • alcohol.

    An organic compound containing the hydroxyl group —OH. (24.4)

  • alpha particles.

    See alpha rays.

  • Anomers

    Carbohydrates that differ in confi guration only at their anomeric carbons.

  • buffered solution (buffer)

    A solution that undergoes a limited change in pH upon addition of a small amount of acid or base. (Section 17.2)

  • Chain-transfer reaction

    The transfer of reactivity of an endgroup from one chain to another during a polymerization

  • elimination

    A reaction involving the loss of a leaving group and formation of a p bond.

  • Haloform

    A compound of the type CHX3 where X is a halogen.

  • instantaneous rate

    The reaction rate at a particular time as opposed to the average rate over an interval of time. (Section 14.2)

  • nitration

    An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that involves the installation of a nitro group (NO2) on an aromatic ring.

  • nucleon

    A particle found in the nucleus of an atom. (Section 21.1)

  • Oxidation

    The loss of electrons. Alternatively, either the loss of hydrogens, the gain of oxygens, or both.

  • peroxides

    Compounds with the general structure R!O!O!R.

  • structural proteins

    Fibrous proteins that are used for their structural rigidity. Examples include a-keratins found in hair, nails, skin, feathers, and wool.

  • Tertiary structure of nucleic acids

    The threedimensional arrangement of all atoms of a nucleic acid, commonly referred to as supercoiling

  • tetravalent

    An element, such as carbon, that forms four bonds.

  • torsional angle

    The angle between two groups in a Newman projection, also called the dihedral angle.

  • Triol

    A compound containing three hydroxyl groups.

  • Wohl degradation

    A process that involves the removal of a carbon atom from an aldose. The aldehyde group is first converted to a cyanohydrin, followed by loss of HCN in the presence of a base.