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ISBN: 9780078740503
Math Connects: Concepts, Skills, and Problem Solving Course 3  0th Edition  Solutions by Chapter
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Change of basis matrix M.
The old basis vectors v j are combinations L mij Wi of the new basis vectors. The coordinates of CI VI + ... + cnvn = dl wI + ... + dn Wn are related by d = M c. (For n = 2 set VI = mll WI +m21 W2, V2 = m12WI +m22w2.)

Characteristic equation det(A  AI) = O.
The n roots are the eigenvalues of A.

Distributive Law
A(B + C) = AB + AC. Add then multiply, or mUltiply then add.

Dot product = Inner product x T y = XI Y 1 + ... + Xn Yn.
Complex dot product is x T Y . Perpendicular vectors have x T y = O. (AB)ij = (row i of A)T(column j of B).

Hankel matrix H.
Constant along each antidiagonal; hij depends on i + j.

Hermitian matrix A H = AT = A.
Complex analog a j i = aU of a symmetric matrix.

Hessenberg matrix H.
Triangular matrix with one extra nonzero adjacent diagonal.

Jordan form 1 = M 1 AM.
If A has s independent eigenvectors, its "generalized" eigenvector matrix M gives 1 = diag(lt, ... , 1s). The block his Akh +Nk where Nk has 1 's on diagonall. Each block has one eigenvalue Ak and one eigenvector.

Krylov subspace Kj(A, b).
The subspace spanned by b, Ab, ... , AjIb. Numerical methods approximate A I b by x j with residual b  Ax j in this subspace. A good basis for K j requires only multiplication by A at each step.

Linear transformation T.
Each vector V in the input space transforms to T (v) in the output space, and linearity requires T(cv + dw) = c T(v) + d T(w). Examples: Matrix multiplication A v, differentiation and integration in function space.

Lucas numbers
Ln = 2,J, 3, 4, ... satisfy Ln = L n l +Ln 2 = A1 +A~, with AI, A2 = (1 ± /5)/2 from the Fibonacci matrix U~]' Compare Lo = 2 with Fo = O.

Matrix multiplication AB.
The i, j entry of AB is (row i of A)·(column j of B) = L aikbkj. By columns: Column j of AB = A times column j of B. By rows: row i of A multiplies B. Columns times rows: AB = sum of (column k)(row k). All these equivalent definitions come from the rule that A B times x equals A times B x .

Network.
A directed graph that has constants Cl, ... , Cm associated with the edges.

Normal matrix.
If N NT = NT N, then N has orthonormal (complex) eigenvectors.

Pivot.
The diagonal entry (first nonzero) at the time when a row is used in elimination.

Right inverse A+.
If A has full row rank m, then A+ = AT(AAT)l has AA+ = 1m.

Singular matrix A.
A square matrix that has no inverse: det(A) = o.

Solvable system Ax = b.
The right side b is in the column space of A.

Symmetric matrix A.
The transpose is AT = A, and aU = a ji. AI is also symmetric.

Wavelets Wjk(t).
Stretch and shift the time axis to create Wjk(t) = woo(2j t  k).