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Solutions for Chapter 1-8: Complex Numbers and Polar Coordinates

Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781111826857 | Authors: Charles P. McKeague

Full solutions for Trigonometry | 7th Edition

ISBN: 9781111826857

Trigonometry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781111826857 | Authors: Charles P. McKeague

Solutions for Chapter 1-8: Complex Numbers and Polar Coordinates

Solutions for Chapter 1-8
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Trigonometry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781111826857. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 1-8: Complex Numbers and Polar Coordinates includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Trigonometry, edition: 7. Since 1 problems in chapter 1-8: Complex Numbers and Polar Coordinates have been answered, more than 24677 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Associative Law (AB)C = A(BC).

    Parentheses can be removed to leave ABC.

  • Augmented matrix [A b].

    Ax = b is solvable when b is in the column space of A; then [A b] has the same rank as A. Elimination on [A b] keeps equations correct.

  • Characteristic equation det(A - AI) = O.

    The n roots are the eigenvalues of A.

  • Diagonalizable matrix A.

    Must have n independent eigenvectors (in the columns of S; automatic with n different eigenvalues). Then S-I AS = A = eigenvalue matrix.

  • Factorization

    A = L U. If elimination takes A to U without row exchanges, then the lower triangular L with multipliers eij (and eii = 1) brings U back to A.

  • Gauss-Jordan method.

    Invert A by row operations on [A I] to reach [I A-I].

  • Hessenberg matrix H.

    Triangular matrix with one extra nonzero adjacent diagonal.

  • lA-II = l/lAI and IATI = IAI.

    The big formula for det(A) has a sum of n! terms, the cofactor formula uses determinants of size n - 1, volume of box = I det( A) I.

  • Network.

    A directed graph that has constants Cl, ... , Cm associated with the edges.

  • Norm

    IIA II. The ".e 2 norm" of A is the maximum ratio II Ax II/l1x II = O"max· Then II Ax II < IIAllllxll and IIABII < IIAIIIIBII and IIA + BII < IIAII + IIBII. Frobenius norm IIAII} = L La~. The.e 1 and.e oo norms are largest column and row sums of laij I.

  • Normal matrix.

    If N NT = NT N, then N has orthonormal (complex) eigenvectors.

  • Nullspace matrix N.

    The columns of N are the n - r special solutions to As = O.

  • Orthonormal vectors q 1 , ... , q n·

    Dot products are q T q j = 0 if i =1= j and q T q i = 1. The matrix Q with these orthonormal columns has Q T Q = I. If m = n then Q T = Q -1 and q 1 ' ... , q n is an orthonormal basis for Rn : every v = L (v T q j )q j •

  • Particular solution x p.

    Any solution to Ax = b; often x p has free variables = o.

  • Pascal matrix

    Ps = pascal(n) = the symmetric matrix with binomial entries (i1~;2). Ps = PL Pu all contain Pascal's triangle with det = 1 (see Pascal in the index).

  • Polar decomposition A = Q H.

    Orthogonal Q times positive (semi)definite H.

  • Reflection matrix (Householder) Q = I -2uuT.

    Unit vector u is reflected to Qu = -u. All x intheplanemirroruTx = o have Qx = x. Notice QT = Q-1 = Q.

  • Right inverse A+.

    If A has full row rank m, then A+ = AT(AAT)-l has AA+ = 1m.

  • Similar matrices A and B.

    Every B = M-I AM has the same eigenvalues as A.

  • Singular matrix A.

    A square matrix that has no inverse: det(A) = o.

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