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Solutions for Chapter 1: Equations and Inequalities

Algebra and Trigonometry | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780470648032 | Authors: Cynthia Y. Young

Full solutions for Algebra and Trigonometry | 3rd Edition

ISBN: 9780470648032

Algebra and Trigonometry | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780470648032 | Authors: Cynthia Y. Young

Solutions for Chapter 1: Equations and Inequalities

Solutions for Chapter 1
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Textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 3
Author: Cynthia Y. Young
ISBN: 9780470648032

Algebra and Trigonometry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780470648032. Since 1012 problems in chapter 1: Equations and Inequalities have been answered, more than 59237 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 1: Equations and Inequalities includes 1012 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry, edition: 3. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Adjacency matrix of a graph.

    Square matrix with aij = 1 when there is an edge from node i to node j; otherwise aij = O. A = AT when edges go both ways (undirected). Adjacency matrix of a graph. Square matrix with aij = 1 when there is an edge from node i to node j; otherwise aij = O. A = AT when edges go both ways (undirected).

  • Basis for V.

    Independent vectors VI, ... , v d whose linear combinations give each vector in V as v = CIVI + ... + CdVd. V has many bases, each basis gives unique c's. A vector space has many bases!

  • Circulant matrix C.

    Constant diagonals wrap around as in cyclic shift S. Every circulant is Col + CIS + ... + Cn_lSn - l . Cx = convolution c * x. Eigenvectors in F.

  • Column picture of Ax = b.

    The vector b becomes a combination of the columns of A. The system is solvable only when b is in the column space C (A).

  • Cyclic shift

    S. Permutation with S21 = 1, S32 = 1, ... , finally SIn = 1. Its eigenvalues are the nth roots e2lrik/n of 1; eigenvectors are columns of the Fourier matrix F.

  • Diagonalization

    A = S-1 AS. A = eigenvalue matrix and S = eigenvector matrix of A. A must have n independent eigenvectors to make S invertible. All Ak = SA k S-I.

  • Four Fundamental Subspaces C (A), N (A), C (AT), N (AT).

    Use AT for complex A.

  • Incidence matrix of a directed graph.

    The m by n edge-node incidence matrix has a row for each edge (node i to node j), with entries -1 and 1 in columns i and j .

  • Matrix multiplication AB.

    The i, j entry of AB is (row i of A)·(column j of B) = L aikbkj. By columns: Column j of AB = A times column j of B. By rows: row i of A multiplies B. Columns times rows: AB = sum of (column k)(row k). All these equivalent definitions come from the rule that A B times x equals A times B x .

  • Multiplier eij.

    The pivot row j is multiplied by eij and subtracted from row i to eliminate the i, j entry: eij = (entry to eliminate) / (jth pivot).

  • Nilpotent matrix N.

    Some power of N is the zero matrix, N k = o. The only eigenvalue is A = 0 (repeated n times). Examples: triangular matrices with zero diagonal.

  • Norm

    IIA II. The ".e 2 norm" of A is the maximum ratio II Ax II/l1x II = O"max· Then II Ax II < IIAllllxll and IIABII < IIAIIIIBII and IIA + BII < IIAII + IIBII. Frobenius norm IIAII} = L La~. The.e 1 and.e oo norms are largest column and row sums of laij I.

  • Pivot.

    The diagonal entry (first nonzero) at the time when a row is used in elimination.

  • Polar decomposition A = Q H.

    Orthogonal Q times positive (semi)definite H.

  • Positive definite matrix A.

    Symmetric matrix with positive eigenvalues and positive pivots. Definition: x T Ax > 0 unless x = O. Then A = LDLT with diag(D» O.

  • Reduced row echelon form R = rref(A).

    Pivots = 1; zeros above and below pivots; the r nonzero rows of R give a basis for the row space of A.

  • Semidefinite matrix A.

    (Positive) semidefinite: all x T Ax > 0, all A > 0; A = any RT R.

  • Subspace S of V.

    Any vector space inside V, including V and Z = {zero vector only}.

  • Vector addition.

    v + w = (VI + WI, ... , Vn + Wn ) = diagonal of parallelogram.

  • Volume of box.

    The rows (or the columns) of A generate a box with volume I det(A) I.

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