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# Solutions for Chapter 3.2: The Derivative as a Function

## Full solutions for Biocalculus: Calculus for Life Sciences | 1st Edition

ISBN: 9781133109631

Solutions for Chapter 3.2: The Derivative as a Function

Solutions for Chapter 3.2
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##### ISBN: 9781133109631

Biocalculus: Calculus for Life Sciences was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781133109631. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Biocalculus: Calculus for Life Sciences , edition: 1. Since 50 problems in chapter 3.2: The Derivative as a Function have been answered, more than 25081 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 3.2: The Derivative as a Function includes 50 full step-by-step solutions.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• Circulant matrix C.

Constant diagonals wrap around as in cyclic shift S. Every circulant is Col + CIS + ... + Cn_lSn - l . Cx = convolution c * x. Eigenvectors in F.

• Cofactor Cij.

Remove row i and column j; multiply the determinant by (-I)i + j •

• Commuting matrices AB = BA.

If diagonalizable, they share n eigenvectors.

• Cross product u xv in R3:

Vector perpendicular to u and v, length Ilullllvlll sin el = area of parallelogram, u x v = "determinant" of [i j k; UI U2 U3; VI V2 V3].

• Diagonalization

A = S-1 AS. A = eigenvalue matrix and S = eigenvector matrix of A. A must have n independent eigenvectors to make S invertible. All Ak = SA k S-I.

• Elimination matrix = Elementary matrix Eij.

The identity matrix with an extra -eij in the i, j entry (i #- j). Then Eij A subtracts eij times row j of A from row i.

• Factorization

A = L U. If elimination takes A to U without row exchanges, then the lower triangular L with multipliers eij (and eii = 1) brings U back to A.

• Full row rank r = m.

Independent rows, at least one solution to Ax = b, column space is all of Rm. Full rank means full column rank or full row rank.

• Gauss-Jordan method.

Invert A by row operations on [A I] to reach [I A-I].

• Left nullspace N (AT).

Nullspace of AT = "left nullspace" of A because y T A = OT.

• Nullspace N (A)

= All solutions to Ax = O. Dimension n - r = (# columns) - rank.

• Orthonormal vectors q 1 , ... , q n·

Dot products are q T q j = 0 if i =1= j and q T q i = 1. The matrix Q with these orthonormal columns has Q T Q = I. If m = n then Q T = Q -1 and q 1 ' ... , q n is an orthonormal basis for Rn : every v = L (v T q j )q j •

• Outer product uv T

= column times row = rank one matrix.

• Reflection matrix (Householder) Q = I -2uuT.

Unit vector u is reflected to Qu = -u. All x intheplanemirroruTx = o have Qx = x. Notice QT = Q-1 = Q.

• Row space C (AT) = all combinations of rows of A.

Column vectors by convention.

• Simplex method for linear programming.

The minimum cost vector x * is found by moving from comer to lower cost comer along the edges of the feasible set (where the constraints Ax = b and x > 0 are satisfied). Minimum cost at a comer!

• Spanning set.

Combinations of VI, ... ,Vm fill the space. The columns of A span C (A)!

• Toeplitz matrix.

Constant down each diagonal = time-invariant (shift-invariant) filter.

• Vandermonde matrix V.

V c = b gives coefficients of p(x) = Co + ... + Cn_IXn- 1 with P(Xi) = bi. Vij = (Xi)j-I and det V = product of (Xk - Xi) for k > i.

• Vector v in Rn.

Sequence of n real numbers v = (VI, ... , Vn) = point in Rn.

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