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Solutions for Chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions

College Algebra | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780321782281 | Authors: Robert F. Blitzer

Full solutions for College Algebra | 6th Edition

ISBN: 9780321782281

College Algebra | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780321782281 | Authors: Robert F. Blitzer

Solutions for Chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Solutions for Chapter 3.4
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Textbook: College Algebra
Edition: 6
Author: Robert F. Blitzer
ISBN: 9780321782281

College Algebra was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321782281. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: College Algebra , edition: 6. Chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions includes 100 full step-by-step solutions. Since 100 problems in chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions have been answered, more than 35198 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Back substitution.

    Upper triangular systems are solved in reverse order Xn to Xl.

  • Echelon matrix U.

    The first nonzero entry (the pivot) in each row comes in a later column than the pivot in the previous row. All zero rows come last.

  • Factorization

    A = L U. If elimination takes A to U without row exchanges, then the lower triangular L with multipliers eij (and eii = 1) brings U back to A.

  • Fibonacci numbers

    0,1,1,2,3,5, ... satisfy Fn = Fn-l + Fn- 2 = (A7 -A~)I()q -A2). Growth rate Al = (1 + .J5) 12 is the largest eigenvalue of the Fibonacci matrix [ } A].

  • Fourier matrix F.

    Entries Fjk = e21Cijk/n give orthogonal columns FT F = nI. Then y = Fe is the (inverse) Discrete Fourier Transform Y j = L cke21Cijk/n.

  • Free columns of A.

    Columns without pivots; these are combinations of earlier columns.

  • Graph G.

    Set of n nodes connected pairwise by m edges. A complete graph has all n(n - 1)/2 edges between nodes. A tree has only n - 1 edges and no closed loops.

  • Hessenberg matrix H.

    Triangular matrix with one extra nonzero adjacent diagonal.

  • Identity matrix I (or In).

    Diagonal entries = 1, off-diagonal entries = 0.

  • Orthogonal matrix Q.

    Square matrix with orthonormal columns, so QT = Q-l. Preserves length and angles, IIQxll = IIxll and (QX)T(Qy) = xTy. AlllAI = 1, with orthogonal eigenvectors. Examples: Rotation, reflection, permutation.

  • Partial pivoting.

    In each column, choose the largest available pivot to control roundoff; all multipliers have leij I < 1. See condition number.

  • Particular solution x p.

    Any solution to Ax = b; often x p has free variables = o.

  • Pivot columns of A.

    Columns that contain pivots after row reduction. These are not combinations of earlier columns. The pivot columns are a basis for the column space.

  • Right inverse A+.

    If A has full row rank m, then A+ = AT(AAT)-l has AA+ = 1m.

  • Schur complement S, D - C A -} B.

    Appears in block elimination on [~ g ].

  • Special solutions to As = O.

    One free variable is Si = 1, other free variables = o.

  • Toeplitz matrix.

    Constant down each diagonal = time-invariant (shift-invariant) filter.

  • Triangle inequality II u + v II < II u II + II v II.

    For matrix norms II A + B II < II A II + II B IIĀ·

  • Tridiagonal matrix T: tij = 0 if Ii - j I > 1.

    T- 1 has rank 1 above and below diagonal.

  • Vector addition.

    v + w = (VI + WI, ... , Vn + Wn ) = diagonal of parallelogram.

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