 3.4.1: In Exercises 18. use the Rational Zero Theorem to list a/J possibl...
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 3.4.70: Explain why the equa tion x4 + 6x2 + 2  0 has no rational roots.
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 3.4.93: In Exercises 9396, the graph of a polynomial function is given. Wh...
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 3.4.97: Explain why a polynomial function of degree 20 cannot cross the xa...
 3.4.98: Exercises 98100 will help you prepare for the material c.overed in...
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Solutions for Chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions
Full solutions for College Algebra  6th Edition
ISBN: 9780321782281
Solutions for Chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions
Get Full SolutionsCollege Algebra was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321782281. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: College Algebra , edition: 6. Chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions includes 100 full stepbystep solutions. Since 100 problems in chapter 3.4: Zeros of Polynomial Functions have been answered, more than 35198 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter.

Back substitution.
Upper triangular systems are solved in reverse order Xn to Xl.

Echelon matrix U.
The first nonzero entry (the pivot) in each row comes in a later column than the pivot in the previous row. All zero rows come last.

Factorization
A = L U. If elimination takes A to U without row exchanges, then the lower triangular L with multipliers eij (and eii = 1) brings U back to A.

Fibonacci numbers
0,1,1,2,3,5, ... satisfy Fn = Fnl + Fn 2 = (A7 A~)I()q A2). Growth rate Al = (1 + .J5) 12 is the largest eigenvalue of the Fibonacci matrix [ } A].

Fourier matrix F.
Entries Fjk = e21Cijk/n give orthogonal columns FT F = nI. Then y = Fe is the (inverse) Discrete Fourier Transform Y j = L cke21Cijk/n.

Free columns of A.
Columns without pivots; these are combinations of earlier columns.

Graph G.
Set of n nodes connected pairwise by m edges. A complete graph has all n(n  1)/2 edges between nodes. A tree has only n  1 edges and no closed loops.

Hessenberg matrix H.
Triangular matrix with one extra nonzero adjacent diagonal.

Identity matrix I (or In).
Diagonal entries = 1, offdiagonal entries = 0.

Orthogonal matrix Q.
Square matrix with orthonormal columns, so QT = Ql. Preserves length and angles, IIQxll = IIxll and (QX)T(Qy) = xTy. AlllAI = 1, with orthogonal eigenvectors. Examples: Rotation, reflection, permutation.

Partial pivoting.
In each column, choose the largest available pivot to control roundoff; all multipliers have leij I < 1. See condition number.

Particular solution x p.
Any solution to Ax = b; often x p has free variables = o.

Pivot columns of A.
Columns that contain pivots after row reduction. These are not combinations of earlier columns. The pivot columns are a basis for the column space.

Right inverse A+.
If A has full row rank m, then A+ = AT(AAT)l has AA+ = 1m.

Schur complement S, D  C A } B.
Appears in block elimination on [~ g ].

Special solutions to As = O.
One free variable is Si = 1, other free variables = o.

Toeplitz matrix.
Constant down each diagonal = timeinvariant (shiftinvariant) filter.

Triangle inequality II u + v II < II u II + II v II.
For matrix norms II A + B II < II A II + II B IIĀ·

Tridiagonal matrix T: tij = 0 if Ii  j I > 1.
T 1 has rank 1 above and below diagonal.

Vector addition.
v + w = (VI + WI, ... , Vn + Wn ) = diagonal of parallelogram.