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Solutions for Chapter 1.7: Computer Graphics (Optional)

Full solutions for Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780471669593

Solutions for Chapter 1.7: Computer Graphics (Optional)

Solutions for Chapter 1.7
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Textbook: Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications
Edition: 9
Author: Howard Anton, Chris Rorres
ISBN: 9780471669593

Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780471669593. Since 24 problems in chapter 1.7: Computer Graphics (Optional) have been answered, more than 9187 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 1.7: Computer Graphics (Optional) includes 24 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications, edition: 9. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Cramer's Rule for Ax = b.

    B j has b replacing column j of A; x j = det B j I det A

  • Exponential eAt = I + At + (At)2 12! + ...

    has derivative AeAt; eAt u(O) solves u' = Au.

  • Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).

    A factorization of the Fourier matrix Fn into e = log2 n matrices Si times a permutation. Each Si needs only nl2 multiplications, so Fnx and Fn-1c can be computed with ne/2 multiplications. Revolutionary.

  • Gauss-Jordan method.

    Invert A by row operations on [A I] to reach [I A-I].

  • Left nullspace N (AT).

    Nullspace of AT = "left nullspace" of A because y T A = OT.

  • Linear transformation T.

    Each vector V in the input space transforms to T (v) in the output space, and linearity requires T(cv + dw) = c T(v) + d T(w). Examples: Matrix multiplication A v, differentiation and integration in function space.

  • Lucas numbers

    Ln = 2,J, 3, 4, ... satisfy Ln = L n- l +Ln- 2 = A1 +A~, with AI, A2 = (1 ± -/5)/2 from the Fibonacci matrix U~]' Compare Lo = 2 with Fo = O.

  • Network.

    A directed graph that has constants Cl, ... , Cm associated with the edges.

  • Normal equation AT Ax = ATb.

    Gives the least squares solution to Ax = b if A has full rank n (independent columns). The equation says that (columns of A)·(b - Ax) = o.

  • Orthogonal matrix Q.

    Square matrix with orthonormal columns, so QT = Q-l. Preserves length and angles, IIQxll = IIxll and (QX)T(Qy) = xTy. AlllAI = 1, with orthogonal eigenvectors. Examples: Rotation, reflection, permutation.

  • Particular solution x p.

    Any solution to Ax = b; often x p has free variables = o.

  • Pivot columns of A.

    Columns that contain pivots after row reduction. These are not combinations of earlier columns. The pivot columns are a basis for the column space.

  • Polar decomposition A = Q H.

    Orthogonal Q times positive (semi)definite H.

  • Right inverse A+.

    If A has full row rank m, then A+ = AT(AAT)-l has AA+ = 1m.

  • Schwarz inequality

    Iv·wl < IIvll IIwll.Then IvTAwl2 < (vT Av)(wT Aw) for pos def A.

  • Semidefinite matrix A.

    (Positive) semidefinite: all x T Ax > 0, all A > 0; A = any RT R.

  • Singular matrix A.

    A square matrix that has no inverse: det(A) = o.

  • Spanning set.

    Combinations of VI, ... ,Vm fill the space. The columns of A span C (A)!

  • Spectrum of A = the set of eigenvalues {A I, ... , An}.

    Spectral radius = max of IAi I.

  • Stiffness matrix

    If x gives the movements of the nodes, K x gives the internal forces. K = ATe A where C has spring constants from Hooke's Law and Ax = stretching.

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