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Solutions for Chapter 1.2: Row Echelon Form

Full solutions for Linear Algebra with Applications | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780321962218

Solutions for Chapter 1.2: Row Echelon Form

Solutions for Chapter 1.2
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Textbook: Linear Algebra with Applications
Edition: 9
Author: Steven J. Leon
ISBN: 9780321962218

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Linear Algebra with Applications, edition: 9. Linear Algebra with Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321962218. Since 22 problems in chapter 1.2: Row Echelon Form have been answered, more than 10686 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 1.2: Row Echelon Form includes 22 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Augmented matrix [A b].

    Ax = b is solvable when b is in the column space of A; then [A b] has the same rank as A. Elimination on [A b] keeps equations correct.

  • Characteristic equation det(A - AI) = O.

    The n roots are the eigenvalues of A.

  • Complete solution x = x p + Xn to Ax = b.

    (Particular x p) + (x n in nullspace).

  • Conjugate Gradient Method.

    A sequence of steps (end of Chapter 9) to solve positive definite Ax = b by minimizing !x T Ax - x Tb over growing Krylov subspaces.

  • Cramer's Rule for Ax = b.

    B j has b replacing column j of A; x j = det B j I det A

  • Cross product u xv in R3:

    Vector perpendicular to u and v, length Ilullllvlll sin el = area of parallelogram, u x v = "determinant" of [i j k; UI U2 U3; VI V2 V3].

  • Dimension of vector space

    dim(V) = number of vectors in any basis for V.

  • Eigenvalue A and eigenvector x.

    Ax = AX with x#-O so det(A - AI) = o.

  • Free columns of A.

    Columns without pivots; these are combinations of earlier columns.

  • Full row rank r = m.

    Independent rows, at least one solution to Ax = b, column space is all of Rm. Full rank means full column rank or full row rank.

  • Fundamental Theorem.

    The nullspace N (A) and row space C (AT) are orthogonal complements in Rn(perpendicular from Ax = 0 with dimensions rand n - r). Applied to AT, the column space C(A) is the orthogonal complement of N(AT) in Rm.

  • Indefinite matrix.

    A symmetric matrix with eigenvalues of both signs (+ and - ).

  • Jordan form 1 = M- 1 AM.

    If A has s independent eigenvectors, its "generalized" eigenvector matrix M gives 1 = diag(lt, ... , 1s). The block his Akh +Nk where Nk has 1 's on diagonall. Each block has one eigenvalue Ak and one eigenvector.

  • Orthogonal matrix Q.

    Square matrix with orthonormal columns, so QT = Q-l. Preserves length and angles, IIQxll = IIxll and (QX)T(Qy) = xTy. AlllAI = 1, with orthogonal eigenvectors. Examples: Rotation, reflection, permutation.

  • Row space C (AT) = all combinations of rows of A.

    Column vectors by convention.

  • Singular Value Decomposition

    (SVD) A = U:E VT = (orthogonal) ( diag)( orthogonal) First r columns of U and V are orthonormal bases of C (A) and C (AT), AVi = O'iUi with singular value O'i > O. Last columns are orthonormal bases of nullspaces.

  • Special solutions to As = O.

    One free variable is Si = 1, other free variables = o.

  • Standard basis for Rn.

    Columns of n by n identity matrix (written i ,j ,k in R3).

  • Symmetric factorizations A = LDLT and A = QAQT.

    Signs in A = signs in D.

  • Symmetric matrix A.

    The transpose is AT = A, and aU = a ji. A-I is also symmetric.

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