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Solutions for Chapter 10.4: Steepest Descent Techniques

Numerical Analysis | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9781305253667 | Authors: Richard L. Burden J. Douglas Faires, Annette M. Burden

Full solutions for Numerical Analysis | 10th Edition

ISBN: 9781305253667

Numerical Analysis | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9781305253667 | Authors: Richard L. Burden J. Douglas Faires, Annette M. Burden

Solutions for Chapter 10.4: Steepest Descent Techniques

Since 8 problems in chapter 10.4: Steepest Descent Techniques have been answered, more than 33438 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Numerical Analysis, edition: 10. Chapter 10.4: Steepest Descent Techniques includes 8 full step-by-step solutions. Numerical Analysis was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781305253667.

Key Math Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Affine transformation

    Tv = Av + Vo = linear transformation plus shift.

  • Circulant matrix C.

    Constant diagonals wrap around as in cyclic shift S. Every circulant is Col + CIS + ... + Cn_lSn - l . Cx = convolution c * x. Eigenvectors in F.

  • Cramer's Rule for Ax = b.

    B j has b replacing column j of A; x j = det B j I det A

  • Cross product u xv in R3:

    Vector perpendicular to u and v, length Ilullllvlll sin el = area of parallelogram, u x v = "determinant" of [i j k; UI U2 U3; VI V2 V3].

  • Echelon matrix U.

    The first nonzero entry (the pivot) in each row comes in a later column than the pivot in the previous row. All zero rows come last.

  • Exponential eAt = I + At + (At)2 12! + ...

    has derivative AeAt; eAt u(O) solves u' = Au.

  • Fundamental Theorem.

    The nullspace N (A) and row space C (AT) are orthogonal complements in Rn(perpendicular from Ax = 0 with dimensions rand n - r). Applied to AT, the column space C(A) is the orthogonal complement of N(AT) in Rm.

  • Hankel matrix H.

    Constant along each antidiagonal; hij depends on i + j.

  • Left nullspace N (AT).

    Nullspace of AT = "left nullspace" of A because y T A = OT.

  • Multiplicities AM and G M.

    The algebraic multiplicity A M of A is the number of times A appears as a root of det(A - AI) = O. The geometric multiplicity GM is the number of independent eigenvectors for A (= dimension of the eigenspace).

  • Network.

    A directed graph that has constants Cl, ... , Cm associated with the edges.

  • Nilpotent matrix N.

    Some power of N is the zero matrix, N k = o. The only eigenvalue is A = 0 (repeated n times). Examples: triangular matrices with zero diagonal.

  • Norm

    IIA II. The ".e 2 norm" of A is the maximum ratio II Ax II/l1x II = O"max· Then II Ax II < IIAllllxll and IIABII < IIAIIIIBII and IIA + BII < IIAII + IIBII. Frobenius norm IIAII} = L La~. The.e 1 and.e oo norms are largest column and row sums of laij I.

  • Nullspace matrix N.

    The columns of N are the n - r special solutions to As = O.

  • Projection matrix P onto subspace S.

    Projection p = P b is the closest point to b in S, error e = b - Pb is perpendicularto S. p 2 = P = pT, eigenvalues are 1 or 0, eigenvectors are in S or S...L. If columns of A = basis for S then P = A (AT A) -1 AT.

  • Rank r (A)

    = number of pivots = dimension of column space = dimension of row space.

  • Schur complement S, D - C A -} B.

    Appears in block elimination on [~ g ].

  • Solvable system Ax = b.

    The right side b is in the column space of A.

  • Stiffness matrix

    If x gives the movements of the nodes, K x gives the internal forces. K = ATe A where C has spring constants from Hooke's Law and Ax = stretching.

  • Volume of box.

    The rows (or the columns) of A generate a box with volume I det(A) I.