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# Solutions for Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Physics: 9th Edition ## Full solutions for Fundamentals of Physics: | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780470556535 Solutions for Chapter 1

Solutions for Chapter 1
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##### ISBN: 9780470556535

Summary of Chapter 1:

What is Physics? Science and engineering are based on measurements and comparisons. Thus, we need rules about how things are measured and compared, and we need experiments to establish the units for those measurements and comparisons. One purpose of physics (and engineering) is to design and conduct those experiments. For example, physicists strive to develop clocks of extreme accuracy so that any time or time interval can be precisely determined and compared. You may wonder whether such accuracy is actually needed or worth the effort. Here is one example of the worth: Without clocks of extreme accuracy, the Global Positioning System (GPS) that is now vital to worldwide navigation would be useless. Measuring Things We discover physics by learning how to measure the quantities involved in physics. Among these quantities are length, time, mass, temperature, pressure, and electric current. We measure each physical quantity in its own units, by comparison with a standard. The unit is a unique name we assign to measures of that quantity-for example, meter (m) for the quantity length. The standard corresponds to exactly 1.0 unit of the quantity. As you will see, the standard for length, which corre- sponds to exactly 1.0 m, is the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a certain fraction of a second. We can define a unit and its standard in any way we care to. However, the important thing is to do so in such a way that scientists around the world will agree that our definitions are both sensible and practical. Once we have set up a standard-say, for length-we must work out proce- dures by which any length whatever, be it the radius of a hydrogen atom, the wheelbase of a skateboard, or the distance to a star, can be expressed in terms of the standard. Rulers, which approximate our length standard, give us one such procedure for measuring length. However, many of our comparisons must be indirect. You cannot use a ruler, for example, to measure the radius of an atom or the distance to a star. There are so many physical quantities that it is a problem to organize them. Fortunately, they are not all independent; for example, speed is the ratio of a length to a time. Thus, what we do is pick out-by international agreement- a small number of physical quantities, such as length and time, and assign standards to them alone. We then define all other physical quantities in terms of these base quantities and their standards (called base standards). Speed, for example, is de- fined in terms of the base quantities length and time and their base standards. Base standards must be both accessible and invariable. If we define the length standard as the distance between one's nose and the index finger on an outstretched arm, we certainly have an accessible standard-but it will, of course, vary from person to person. The demand for precision in science and engineering pushes us to aim first for invariability. We then exert great effort to make dupli- cates of the base standards that are accessible to those who need them.

Since 54 problems in chapter 1 have been answered, more than 101603 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics:, edition: 9. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Fundamentals of Physics: was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780470556535. Chapter 1 includes 54 full step-by-step solutions.

Key Physics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• //

parallel

• any symbol

average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v¯ is average velocity)

• °C

Celsius degree

• °F

Fahrenheit degree

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