 1.1: Earth is approximately a sphere of radius 6.37 X 106 m. What are (a...
 1.2: A gry is an old English measure for length, defined as 1/10 of a li...
 1.3: The micrometer (1 m) is often called the micron. (a) How many micro...
 1.4: Spacing in this book was generally done in units of points and pica...
 1.5: Horses are to race over a certain English meadow for a distance of ...
 1.6: You can easily convert common units and measures electronically, bu...
 1.7: IlW Hydraulic engineers in the United States often use, as a unit o...
 1.8: Harvard Bridge, which connects MIT with its fraternities across the...
 1.9: Antarctica is roughly semicircular, with a radius of 2000 km (Fig. ...
 1.10: Until 1883, every city and town in the United States kept its own l...
 1.11: For about 10 years after the French Revolution, the French governme...
 1.12: The fastest growing plant on record is a Hesperoyucca whipplei that...
 1.13: Three digital clocks A, B, and C run at different rates and do not ...
 1.14: A lecture period (50 min) is close to 1 microcentury. (a) How long ...
 1.15: A fortnight is a charming English measure of time equal to 2.0 week...
 1.16: Time standards are now based on atomic clocks. A promising second s...
 1.17: Five clocks are being tested in a laboratory. Exactly at noon, as d...
 1.18: Because Earth's rotation is gradually slowing, the length of each d...
 1.19: Suppose that, while lying on a beach near the equator watching the ...
 1.20: The record for the largest glass bottle was set in 1992 by a team i...
 1.21: Earth has a mass of 5.98 X 1024 kg. The average mass of the atoms t...
 1.22: Gold, which has a density of 19.32 g/cm3, is the most ductile metal...
 1.23: (a) Assuming that water has a density of exactly 1 g/cm3, find the ...
 1.24: Grains of fine California beach sand are approximately spheres with...
 1.25: During heavy rain, a section of a mountainside measuring 2.5 km hor...
 1.26: One cubic centimeter of a typical cumulus cloud contains 50 to 500 ...
 1.27: Iron has a density of 7.87 g/cm, and the mass of an iron atom is 9....
 1.28: A mole of atoms is 6.02 X 10 atoms. To the nearest order of magnitu...
 1.29: On a spending spree in Malaysia, you buy an ox with a weight of 28....
 1.30: Water is poured into a container that has a small leak. The mass 11...
 1.31: A vertical container with base area measuring 14.0 cm by 17.0 cm is...
 1.32: In the United States, a doll house has the scale of 1: 12 of a real...
 1.33: A ton is a measure of volume frequently used in shipping, but that ...
 1.34: Two types of barrel units were in use in the 1920s in the United St...
 1.35: An old English children's rhyme states, "Little Miss Muffet sat on ...
 1.36: Table 17 shows some old measures of liquid volume. To complete the...
 1.37: A typical sugar cube has an edge length of 1 cm. If you had a cubic...
 1.38: An old manuscript reveals that a landowner in the time of King Arth...
 1.39: A tourist purchases a car in England and ships it home to the Unite...
 1.40: Using conversions and data in the chapter, determine the number of ...
 1.41: A cord is a volume of cut wood equal to a stack 8 ft long, 4 ft wid...
 1.42: One molecule of water (H0) contains two atoms of hydrogen and one a...
 1.43: A person on a diet might lose 2.3 kg per week. Express the mass los...
 1.44: What mass of water fell on the town in 7? Water has a density of 1....
 1.45: (a) A unit of time sometimes used in microscopic physics is the sha...
 1.46: A unit of area often used in measuring land areas is the hectare, d...
 1.47: An astronomical unit (AU) is the average distance between Earth and...
 1.48: ll1e common Eastern mole, a mammal, typically has a mass of 75 g, w...
 1.49: A traditional unit of length in Japan is the ken (1 ken = 1.97 m). ...
 1.50: You receive orders to sail due east for 24.5 mi to put your salvage...
 1.51: The cubit is an ancient unit of length based on the distance betwee...
 1.52: As a contrast between the old and the modern and between the large ...
 1.53: An astronomical unit (AU) is equal to the average distance from Ear...
 1.54: The description for a certain brand of house paint claims a coverag...
Solutions for Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Physics: 9th Edition
Full solutions for Fundamentals of Physics:  9th Edition
ISBN: 9780470556535
Solutions for Chapter 1
Get Full SolutionsSummary of Chapter 1:
What is Physics? Science and engineering are based on measurements and comparisons. Thus, we need rules about how things are measured and compared, and we need experiments to establish the units for those measurements and comparisons. One purpose of physics (and engineering) is to design and conduct those experiments. For example, physicists strive to develop clocks of extreme accuracy so that any time or time interval can be precisely determined and compared. You may wonder whether such accuracy is actually needed or worth the effort. Here is one example of the worth: Without clocks of extreme accuracy, the Global Positioning System (GPS) that is now vital to worldwide navigation would be useless. Measuring Things We discover physics by learning how to measure the quantities involved in physics. Among these quantities are length, time, mass, temperature, pressure, and electric current. We measure each physical quantity in its own units, by comparison with a standard. The unit is a unique name we assign to measures of that quantityfor example, meter (m) for the quantity length. The standard corresponds to exactly 1.0 unit of the quantity. As you will see, the standard for length, which corre sponds to exactly 1.0 m, is the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a certain fraction of a second. We can define a unit and its standard in any way we care to. However, the important thing is to do so in such a way that scientists around the world will agree that our definitions are both sensible and practical. Once we have set up a standardsay, for lengthwe must work out proce dures by which any length whatever, be it the radius of a hydrogen atom, the wheelbase of a skateboard, or the distance to a star, can be expressed in terms of the standard. Rulers, which approximate our length standard, give us one such procedure for measuring length. However, many of our comparisons must be indirect. You cannot use a ruler, for example, to measure the radius of an atom or the distance to a star. There are so many physical quantities that it is a problem to organize them. Fortunately, they are not all independent; for example, speed is the ratio of a length to a time. Thus, what we do is pick outby international agreement a small number of physical quantities, such as length and time, and assign standards to them alone. We then define all other physical quantities in terms of these base quantities and their standards (called base standards). Speed, for example, is de fined in terms of the base quantities length and time and their base standards. Base standards must be both accessible and invariable. If we define the length standard as the distance between one's nose and the index finger on an outstretched arm, we certainly have an accessible standardbut it will, of course, vary from person to person. The demand for precision in science and engineering pushes us to aim first for invariability. We then exert great effort to make dupli cates of the base standards that are accessible to those who need them.
Since 54 problems in chapter 1 have been answered, more than 101603 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics:, edition: 9. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Fundamentals of Physics: was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780470556535. Chapter 1 includes 54 full stepbystep solutions.

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parallel

any symbol
average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v¯ is average velocity)

°C
Celsius degree

°F
Fahrenheit degree