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# Solutions for Chapter 37: Fundamentals of Physics: 9th Edition

## Full solutions for Fundamentals of Physics: | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780470556535

Solutions for Chapter 37

Solutions for Chapter 37
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##### ISBN: 9780470556535

Summary of Chapter 37:

One focus of physics in the study of light is to understand and put to use the diffraction of light as it passes through a narrow slit or (as we shall discuss) past either a narrow obstacle or an edge. We touched on this phe- nomenon in Chapter 35 when we looked at how light flared-diffracted- through the slits in Young's experiment. Diffraction through a given slit is more complicated than simple flaring, however, because the light also inter- feres with itself and produces an interference pattern. It is because of such complications that light is rich with application opportunities. Even though the diffraction of light as it passes through a slit or past an obstacle seems aw- fully academic, countless engineers and scientists make their living using this physics, and the total worth of diffraction applications worldwide is probably incalculable. Before we can discuss some of these applications, we first must discuss why diffraction is due to the wave nature of light. In Chapter 35 we defined diffraction rather loosely as the flaring of light as it emerges from a narrow slit. More than just flaring occurs, however, because the light produces an interference pattern called a diffraction pattern. For example, when monochromatic light from a distant source (or a laser) passes through a narrow slit and is then intercepted by a viewing screen, the light produces on the screen a diffraction pattern like that in Fig. 36-1. This pattern consists of a broad and intense (very bright) central maximum plus a number of narrower and less intense maxima (called secondary or side maxima) to both sides. In between the maxima are minima. Light flares into those dark regions, but the light waves can- cel out one another. Such a pattern would be totally unexpected in geometrical optics: If light traveled in straight lines as rays, then the slit would allow some of those rays through to form a sharp rendition of the slit on the viewing screen instead of a pattern of bright and dark bands as we see in Fig. 36-1. As in Chapter 35, we must conclude that geometrical optics is only an approximation. Diffraction is not limited to situations when light passes through a narrow opening (such as a slit or pinhole). It also occurs when light passes an edge, such as the edges of the razor blade whose diffraction pattern is shown in Fig. 36-2. Note the lines of maxima and minima that run approximately parallel to the edges, at both the inside edges of the blade and the outside edges. As the light passes, say, the vertical edge at the left, it flares left and right and undergoes inter- ference, producing the pattern along the left edge. The rightmost portion of that pattern actually lies behind the blade, within what would be the blade's shadow if geometrical optics prevailed.

This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 88 problems in chapter 37 have been answered, more than 95624 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 37 includes 88 full step-by-step solutions. Fundamentals of Physics: was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780470556535. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics:, edition: 9.

Key Physics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
• //

parallel

• any symbol

average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v¯ is average velocity)

• °C

Celsius degree

• °F

Fahrenheit degree

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