 37.1: The mean lifetime of stationary muons is measured to be 2.2000 jLs....
 37.2: To eight significant figures, what is speed parameter (3 if the Lor...
 37.3: You wish to make a round trip from Earth in a spaceship, traveling ...
 37.4: (Come) baek to the future. Suppose that a father is 20.00 y older t...
 37.5: An unstable highenergy particle enters a detector and leaves a tra...
 37.6: Reference frame S' is to pass reference frame S at speed v along th...
 37.7: The premise of the Planet of the Apes movies and book is that hiber...
 37.8: An electron of (3 = 0.999987 moves along the axis of an evacuated t...
 37.9: A spaceship of rest length 130 m races past a timing station at a s...
 37.10: A meter stick in frame S' makes an angle of 30 with the x' axis. If...
 37.11: A rod lies parallel to the x axis of reference frame S, moving alon...
 37.12: The length of a spaceship is measured to be exactly half its rest l...
 37.13: A space traveler takes off from Earth and moves at speed 0.9900e to...
 37.14: A rod is to move at constant speed v along the x axis of reference ...
 37.15: The center of our Milky Way galaxy is about 23 000 Iy away. (a) To ...
 37.16: Observer S reports that an event occurred on the x axis of his refe...
 37.17: In Fig. 379, the origins of the two frames coincide at t = t' = 0 ...
 37.18: Inertial frame S' moves at a speed of 0.60c with respect to frame S...
 37.19: An experimenter arranges to trigger two flashbulbs simultaneously, ...
 37.20: As in Fig. 379, reference frame S' passes reference frame S with a...
 37.21: Relativistic reversal of events. Figures 3725a and b show the (usu...
 37.22: For the passing reference frames in Fig. 3725, events A and B occu...
 37.23: A clock moves along an x axis at a speed of 0.600e and reads zero a...
 37.24: Bullwinkle in reference frame S' passes you in reference frame S al...
 37.25: In Fig. 379, observer S detects two flashes of light. A big flash ...
 37.26: In Fig. 379, observer S detects two flashes of light. A big flash ...
 37.27: A particle moves along the x' axis of frame S' with velocity 0.40e....
 37.28: In Fig. 3711, frame S' moves relative to frame S with velocity 0.6...
 37.29: Galaxy A is reported to be receding from us with a speed of 0.35e. ...
 37.30: Stellar system Ql moves away from us at a speed of O.SOOe. Stellar ...
 37.31: A spaceship whose rest length is 350 m has a speed of 0.S2e with re...
 37.32: In Fig. 3726a, particle P is to move parallel to the x and x' axes...
 37.33: An armada of spaceships that is 1.001y long (in its rest frame) mov...
 37.34: A sodium light source moves in a horizontal circle at a constant sp...
 37.35: A spaceship, moving away from Earth at a speed of 0.900e, reports b...
 37.36: Certain wavelengths in the light from a galaxy in the constellation...
 37.37: Assuming that Eq. 3736 holds, find how fast you would have to go t...
 37.38: Figure 3727 is a graph of intensity versus wavelength for light re...
 37.39: A spaceship is moving away from Earth at speed 0.20e. A source on t...
 37.40: How much work must be done to increase the speed of an electron fro...
 37.41: The mass of an electron is 9.109 38188 X 1031 kg. To six significa...
 37.42: What is the minimum energy that is required to break a nucleus of 1...
 37.43: How much work must be done to increase the speed of an electron (a)...
 37.44: In the reaction p + 19F ~ a + 160, the masses are m(p) = 1.007825 u...
 37.45: In a highenergy collision between a cosmicray particle and a part...
 37.46: (a) If m is a particle's mass, p is its momentum magnitude, and K i...
 37.47: A 5.00grain aspirin tablet has a mass of 320 mg. For how many kilo...
 37.48: The mass of a muon is 207 times the electron mass; the average life...
 37.49: As you read this page (on paper or monitor screen), a cosmic ray pr...
 37.50: To four significant figures, find the following when the kinetic en...
 37.51: What must be the momentum of a particle with mass m so that the tot...
 37.52: Apply the binomial theorem (Appendix E) to the last part of Eq. 37...
 37.53: In Section 286, we showed that a particle of charge q and mass m w...
 37.54: What is (3 for a particle with (a) K = 2.00Eo and (b) E = 2.00Eo?
 37.55: A certain particle of mass m has momentum of magnitude me. What are...
 37.56: (a) The energy released in the explosion of 1.00 mol of TNT is 3.40...
 37.57: Quasars are thought to be the nuclei of active galaxies in the earl...
 37.58: The mass of an electron is 9.109 38188 X 1031 kg. To eight signifi...
 37.59: An alpha particle with kinetic energy 7.70 MeV collides with an 14N...
 37.60: Temporal separation between two events. Events A and B occur with t...
 37.61: Spatial separation between two events. For the passing reference fr...
 37.62: In Fig. 3728a, particle P is to move parallel to the x and x' axes...
 37.63: Superluminal jets. Figure 3729a shows the path taken by a knot in ...
 37.64: Reference frame S' passes reference frame S with a certain velocity...
 37.65: Another approach to velocity transformations. In Fig. 3731, refere...
 37.66: Continuation of 65. Use the result of part (b) in for the motion al...
 37.67: Continuation of 65. Let reference frame C in Fig. 3731 move past r...
 37.68: Figure 3716 shows a ship (attached to reference frame S') passing ...
 37.69: The carinthegarage problem. Carman has just purchased the world'...
 37.70: An airplane whose rest length is 40.0 m is moving at uniform veloci...
 37.71: To circle Earth in low orbit, a satellite must have a speed of abou...
 37.72: Find the speed parameter of a particle that takes 2.0 y longer than...
 37.73: How much work is needed to accelerate a proton from a speed of 0.98...
 37.74: A pion is created in the higher reaches of Earth's atmosphere when ...
 37.75: If we intercept an electron having total energy 1533 MeV that came ...
 37.76: The total energy of a proton passing through a laboratory apparatus...
 37.77: A spaceship at rest in a certain reference frame S is given a speed...
 37.78: In the red shift of radiation from a distant galaxy, a certain radi...
 37.79: What is the momentum in MeV/c of an electron with a kinetic energy ...
 37.80: The radius of Earth is 6370 km, and its orbital speed about the Sun...
 37.81: A particle with mass m has speed c!2 relative to inertial frame S. ...
 37.82: An elementary particle produced in a laboratory experiment travels ...
 37.83: What are (a) K, (b) E, and (c) p (in GeV/c) for a proton moving at ...
 37.84: A radar transmitter T is fixed to a reference frame S' that is movi...
 37.85: One cosmicray particle approaches Earth along Earth's northsouth ...
 37.86: (a) How much energy is released in the explosion of a fission bomb ...
 37.87: (a) What potential difference would accelerate an electron to speed...
 37.88: A Foron cruiser moving directly toward a Reptulian scout ship fires...
Solutions for Chapter 37: Fundamentals of Physics: 9th Edition
Full solutions for Fundamentals of Physics:  9th Edition
ISBN: 9780470556535
Solutions for Chapter 37
Get Full SolutionsSummary of Chapter 37:
One focus of physics in the study of light is to understand and put to use the diffraction of light as it passes through a narrow slit or (as we shall discuss) past either a narrow obstacle or an edge. We touched on this phe nomenon in Chapter 35 when we looked at how light flareddiffracted through the slits in Young's experiment. Diffraction through a given slit is more complicated than simple flaring, however, because the light also inter feres with itself and produces an interference pattern. It is because of such complications that light is rich with application opportunities. Even though the diffraction of light as it passes through a slit or past an obstacle seems aw fully academic, countless engineers and scientists make their living using this physics, and the total worth of diffraction applications worldwide is probably incalculable. Before we can discuss some of these applications, we first must discuss why diffraction is due to the wave nature of light. In Chapter 35 we defined diffraction rather loosely as the flaring of light as it emerges from a narrow slit. More than just flaring occurs, however, because the light produces an interference pattern called a diffraction pattern. For example, when monochromatic light from a distant source (or a laser) passes through a narrow slit and is then intercepted by a viewing screen, the light produces on the screen a diffraction pattern like that in Fig. 361. This pattern consists of a broad and intense (very bright) central maximum plus a number of narrower and less intense maxima (called secondary or side maxima) to both sides. In between the maxima are minima. Light flares into those dark regions, but the light waves can cel out one another. Such a pattern would be totally unexpected in geometrical optics: If light traveled in straight lines as rays, then the slit would allow some of those rays through to form a sharp rendition of the slit on the viewing screen instead of a pattern of bright and dark bands as we see in Fig. 361. As in Chapter 35, we must conclude that geometrical optics is only an approximation. Diffraction is not limited to situations when light passes through a narrow opening (such as a slit or pinhole). It also occurs when light passes an edge, such as the edges of the razor blade whose diffraction pattern is shown in Fig. 362. Note the lines of maxima and minima that run approximately parallel to the edges, at both the inside edges of the blade and the outside edges. As the light passes, say, the vertical edge at the left, it flares left and right and undergoes inter ference, producing the pattern along the left edge. The rightmost portion of that pattern actually lies behind the blade, within what would be the blade's shadow if geometrical optics prevailed.
This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 88 problems in chapter 37 have been answered, more than 95624 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 37 includes 88 full stepbystep solutions. Fundamentals of Physics: was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780470556535. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Fundamentals of Physics:, edition: 9.

//
parallel

any symbol
average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v¯ is average velocity)

°C
Celsius degree

°F
Fahrenheit degree