- 1.4.1: Since Moby Dick was written by Shakespeare, and Moby Dick is a scie...
- 1.4.2: Since London is north of Paris and south of Edinburgh, it follows t...
- 1.4.3: If George Washington was beheaded, then George Washington died. Geo...
- 1.4.4: The longest river in South America is the Amazon, and the Amazon fl...
- 1.4.5: Since the Spanish-American War occurred before the U.S. Civil War, ...
- 1.4.6: The Empire State Building is taller than the Statue of Liberty, and...
- 1.4.7: All leopards with lungs are carnivores. Therefore, all leopards are...
- 1.4.8: Chicago is a city in Michigan and Michigan is part of the United St...
- 1.4.9: If President Barack Obama was born in Massachusetts, then he is a n...
- 1.4.10: Every province in Canada has exactly one city as its capital. There...
- 1.4.11: Since the Department of Defense Building outside Washington, D.C., ...
- 1.4.12: Since Winston Churchill was English, and Winston Churchill was a fa...
- 1.4.13: Since some fruits are green, and some fruits are apples, it follows...
- 1.4.14: All physicians are individuals who have earned degrees in political...
- 1.4.15: The United States Congress has more members than there are days in ...
- 1.4.16: Since x 1 y 5 10, and x 5 7, it follows that y 5 4.
- 1.4.17: If acupuncture is hocus pocus, then acupuncture cannot relieve chro...
- 1.4.18: If inflation heats up, then interest rates will rise. If interest r...
- 1.4.19: Statistics reveal that 86 percent of those who receive flu shots do...
- 1.4.20: Since Michael is a Pisces, it necessarily follows that he was born ...
Solutions for Chapter 1.4: Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency
Full solutions for A Concise Introduction to Logic | 12th Edition
The apparent brightness of a star if it were viewed from a distance of 10 parsecs (32.6 light-years). Used to compare the true brightness of stars.
An accumulation of sediment found along the landward margin of the ocean or a lake.
Structure in which relatively thin layers are inclined at an angle to the main bedding. Formed by currents of wind or water.
Sinuous ridge composed largely of sand and gravel deposited by a stream flowing in a tunnel beneath a glacier near its terminus.
A cliff created by movement along a fault. It represents the exposed surface of the fault prior to modification by weathering and erosion.
A steep-sided inlet of the sea formed when a glacial trough was partially submerged.
Flows of basaltic lava that issue from numerous cracks or fissures and commonly cover extensive areas to thicknesses of hundreds of meters.
The marine-life zone beyond the continental shelf.
A naturally occurring concentration of one or more metallic minerals that can be extracted economically.
A dry area on the lee side of a mountain range. Many middle-latitude deserts are of this type.
A drainage pattern characterized by numerous right-angle bends that develops on jointed or fractured bedrock.
A region of Earth’s crust along which divergence is taking place.
A rapidly moving ocean wave generated by earthquake activity capable of inflicting heavy damage in coastal regions.
The area where an air mass acquires its characteristic properties of temperature and moisture.
A flattened, rotating galaxy with pinwheel-like arms of interstellar material and young stars winding out from its nucleus.
The channel, valley floor, and sloping valley walls of a stream.
Unsorted sediment deposited directly by a glacier.
A streamlined pyroclastic fragment ejected from a volcano while molten.
An isolated, steep-sided, erosional remnant consisting of lava that once occupied the vent of a volcano.
The state of the atmosphere at any given time.