- 2.1: Why are most modern constellations composed of faint stars or locat...
- 2.2: How does the Greek-letter designation of a star give you clues to i...
- 2.3: From your knowledge of stars names and constellations, which of the...
- 2.4: How did the magnitude system originate in a classifi cation of star...
- 2.5: What does the word apparent mean in apparent visual magnitude?
- 2.6: What does the word visual mean in apparent visual magnitude?
- 2.7: In what ways is the celestial sphere a scientifi c model?
- 2.8: If Earth did not rotate, could you defi ne the celestial poles and ...
- 2.9: Where would you go on Earth if you wanted to be able to see both th...
- 2.10: Why does the number of circumpolar constellations depend on the lat...
- 2.11: Explain two reasons why winter days are colder than summer days.
- 2.12: How do the seasons in Earths southern hemisphere differ from those ...
- 2.13: Why should the eccentricity of Earths orbit make winter in Earths n...
- 2.14: How Do We Know? How can a scientifi c model be useful if it isnt a ...
- 2.15: How Do We Know? In what way is astrology a pseudoscience?
- 2.16: How Do We Know? How is evidence a distinguishing characteristic of ...
- 2.17: How Do We Know? Why must a scientifi c argument dealing with some a...
Solutions for Chapter 2: The Sky
Full solutions for Foundations of Astronomy | 11th Edition
Horizontal convective motion, such as wind.
A subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere. This zone of weak material exists below a depth of about 100 kilometers and in some regions extends as deep as 700 kilometers. The rock within this zone is easily deformed.
A large mass of igneous rock that formed when magma was emplaced at depth, crystallized, and subsequently exposed by erosion.
The process by which large quantities of sand are added to the beach system to offset losses caused by wave erosion.
Sediment that is carried by a stream along the bottom of its channel.
A type of volcanism that results from the eruption of magmas derived from the partial melting of ice.
Elements of weather and climate
Those quantities or properties of the atmosphere that are measured regularly and that are used to express the nature of weather and climate.
Evolution (Theory of)
A fundamental theory in biology and paleontology that sets forth the process by which members of a population of organisms come to differ from their ancestors. Organisms evolve by means of mutations, natural selection, and genetic factors. Modern species are descended from related but different species that lived in earlier times.
The distance from the lens to the point where it focuses parallel rays of light.
See Volcanic island arc.
The energy absorbed or released during a change in state.
The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle.
A change in Earth’s magnetic field from normal to reverse or vice versa.
A chemical bond present in all metals that may be characterized as an extreme type of electron sharing in which the electrons move freely from atom to atom.
Stars poor in atoms heavier than helium. Nearly always relatively old stars found in the halo, globular clusters, or nuclear bulge.
Primary (P) wave
A type of seismic wave that involves alternating compression and expansion of the material through which it passes.
An angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox. Used with declination in a coordinate system to describe the position of celestial bodies.
The force per unit area acting on any surface within a solid.
Volcanic island arc
A chain of volcanic islands generally located a few hundred kilometers from a trench where active subduction of one oceanic slab beneath another is occurring.