- 21.1: All of the following are considered innate body defenses except (a)...
- 21.2: The process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls in...
- 21.3: Antibodies released by plasma cells are involved in (a) humoral imm...
- 21.4: Which of the following antibodies can fix complement? (a) IgA, (b) ...
- 21.5: Which antibody class is abundant in body secretions? (a) IgA, (b) I...
- 21.6: Small molecules that must combine with large proteins to become imm...
- 21.7: Lymphocytes that develop immunocompetence in the bone marrow are (a...
- 21.8: Cells that can directly attack target cells include all of the foll...
- 21.9: Which of the following is not involved in the activation of a B cel...
- 21.10: The cell type most often invaded by HIV is a(n) (a) eosinophil, (b)...
- 21.11: Complement fixation promotes all of the following except (a) cell l...
- 21.12: Using the letters from column B, match the cell description in colu...
- 21.13: Besides acting as mechanical barriers, the skin epidermis and mucos...
- 21.14: Explain why attempts at phagocytosis are not always successful; cit...
- 21.15: What is complement? How does it cause bacterial lysis? What are som...
- 21.16: Interferons are referred to as antiviral proteins. What stimulates ...
- 21.17: Differentiate between humoral and cellular adaptive immunity.
- 21.18: Although the adaptive immune system has two arms, it has been said,...
- 21.19: Define immunocompetence and self-tolerance. How is selftolerance ac...
- 21.20: Differentiate between a primary and a secondary immune response. Wh...
- 21.21: Define antibody. Using an appropriately labeled diagram, describe t...
- 21.22: What is the role of the variable regions of an antibody? Of the con...
- 21.23: Name the five antibody classes and describe where each is most like...
- 21.24: How do antibodies help defend the body?
- 21.25: Do vaccines produce active or passive humoral immunity? Explain you...
- 21.26: Describe the process of activation of a CD4 T cell.
- 21.27: Describe the specific roles of helper, regulatory, and cytotoxic T ...
- 21.28: Name several cytokines and describe their role in the immune response.
- 21.29: Define hypersensitivity. List three types of hypersensitivity react...
- 21.30: What events can result in autoimmune disease?
- 21.31: What accounts for the declining efficiency of the immune system wit...
Solutions for Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses
Full solutions for Human Anatomy & Physiology | 9th Edition
ISBN: Human Anatomy & Physiology
Very level area of the deep-ocean floor, usually lying at the foot of the continental rise.
The place in the orbit of a planet where the planet is farthest from the Sun.
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions and usually having properties different from those of its constituent elements.
A pass between mountain valleys where the headwalls of two cirques intersect.
One of the two types of dry climate; the driest of the dry climates.
Celestial bodies that orbit stars, massive enough to be spherical but have not cleared their neighboring regions of planetesimals.
The name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth. It includes geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy.
Spherically shaped, negatively charged zones that surround the nucleus of an atom.
See Terrestrial planets.
Magnetic time scale
A scale that shows the ages of magnetic reversals and is based on the polarity of lava flows of various ages.
Algal plankton, which are the most important community of primary producers in the ocean.
Stars rich in atoms heavier than helium. Nearly always relatively young stars found in the disk of the galaxy.
The radioactive isotope of carbon, which is produced continuously in the atmosphere and is used in dating events from the very recent geologic past (the last few tens of thousands of years).
The rapid slide of a mass of rock downslope along planes of weakness.
A local wind blowing from the sea during the afternoon in coastal areas.
A vertical section through a soil showing its succession of horizons and the underlying parent material.
Fog having the appearance of steam, produced by evaporation from a warm water surface into the cool air above.
The period of revolution of the Moon with respect to the Sun, or its cycle of phases.
The region of the atmosphere immediately above the mesosphere and characterized by increasing temperatures due to absorption of very shortwave solar energy by oxygen.
Tropical rain forest
A luxuriant broadleaf evergreen forest; also, the name given the climate associated with this vegetation.