- 12.1: Refer to the geologic time scale in Figure 12.3. The Precambrian ac...
- 12.2: Referring to Figure 12.4, list the major events that led to the for...
- 12.3: What does the existence of iron-rich rocks during the Precambrian i...
- 12.4: What are two ways that the appearance of a significant amount of ox...
- 12.5: Presently, about 71 percent of Earths surface is ocean covered. Thi...
- 12.6: Refer to Figure 12.12. Explain why there are so few rocks older tha...
- 12.7: Contrast the eastern and western margins of North America during th...
- 12.8: Why do you think plants moved onto land before animals?
- 12.9: Refer to Figure 12.21. How has biodiversity changed with time? How ...
- 12.10: Some scientists have proposed that the environments around black sm...
Solutions for Chapter 12: Earth Science 13th Edition
Full solutions for Earth Science | 13th Edition
A final state of evolution for a star, in which all of its energy sources are exhausted and it no longer emits radiation.
A rather small volcano built primarily of pyroclastics ejected from a single vent.
Changes in rock caused by the heat from a nearby magma body.
A chemical bond produced by the sharing of electrons.
Undetected matter that is thought to exist in great quantities in the universe.
A sedimentary rock formed of material deposited from solution by evaporation of water.
A mountain valley that has been widened, deepened, and straightened by a glacier.
Nearly spherical ice pellets having concentric layers and formed by the successive freezing of layers of water.
A cloud that normally has its base above 6,000 meters; the base may be lower in winter and at high-latitude locations.
The area where land and sea meet and overlap; the zone between high and low tides.
The layer of the atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere and characterized by decreasing temperatures with height.
The luminous phenomenon observed when a meteoroid enters Earth’s atmosphere and burns up; popularly called a “shooting star.”
Resource that forms or accumulates over such long time spans that it must be considered as fixed in total quantity.
A magnetic field that is the same as that which exists at present.
An eclipse of a star or planet by the Moon or a planet.
The tabular arrangement of the elements according to atomic number.
An epoch of the Quaternary period beginning about 1.8 million years ago and ending about 10,000 years ago. Best known as a time of extensive continental glaciation.
A wind that consistently blows from one direction more than from another.
The relative proportions of clay, silt, and sand in a soil. Texture strongly influences the soil’s ability to retain and transmit water and air.
A dark spot on the Sun, which is cool by contrast to the surrounding photosphere.