Solutions for Chapter 8: Sampling Distributions
Full solutions for Mathematical Statistics with Applications  8th Edition
ISBN: 9780321807090
Solutions for Chapter 8: Sampling Distributions
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Addition rule
A formula used to determine the probability of the union of two (or more) events from the probabilities of the events and their intersection(s).

Alias
In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.

Axioms of probability
A set of rules that probabilities deined on a sample space must follow. See Probability

Bayesâ€™ estimator
An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.

Categorical data
Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.

Chisquare test
Any test of signiicance based on the chisquare distribution. The most common chisquare tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variance or standard deviation of a normal distribution and (2) testing goodness of it of a theoretical distribution to sample data

Contour plot
A twodimensional graphic used for a bivariate probability density function that displays curves for which the probability density function is constant.

Control limits
See Control chart.

Correlation coeficient
A dimensionless measure of the linear association between two variables, usually lying in the interval from ?1 to +1, with zero indicating the absence of correlation (but not necessarily the independence of the two variables).

Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.

Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t

Curvilinear regression
An expression sometimes used for nonlinear regression models or polynomial regression models.

Defect
Used in statistical quality control, a defect is a particular type of nonconformance to speciications or requirements. Sometimes defects are classiied into types, such as appearance defects and functional defects.

Discrete uniform random variable
A discrete random variable with a inite range and constant probability mass function.

Distribution free method(s)
Any method of inference (hypothesis testing or conidence interval construction) that does not depend on the form of the underlying distribution of the observations. Sometimes called nonparametric method(s).

Ftest
Any test of signiicance involving the F distribution. The most common Ftests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variances or standard deviations of two independent normal distributions, (2) testing hypotheses about treatment means or variance components in the analysis of variance, and (3) testing signiicance of regression or tests on subsets of parameters in a regression model.

Factorial experiment
A type of experimental design in which every level of one factor is tested in combination with every level of another factor. In general, in a factorial experiment, all possible combinations of factor levels are tested.

Firstorder model
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irstorder response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irstorder model is also called a main effects model

Forward selection
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.

Fraction defective
In statistical quality control, that portion of a number of units or the output of a process that is defective.