- Chapter 1:
- Chapter 10:
- Chapter 2:
- Chapter 3:
- Chapter 4:
- Chapter 5:
- Chapter 6:
- Chapter 7:
- Chapter 8:
- Chapter 9:
First Course in Probability 8th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for First Course in Probability | 8th Edition
Additivity property of x 2
If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chi-square with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chi-square random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chi-square random variables.
An estimator for a parameter obtained from a Bayesian method that uses a prior distribution for the parameter along with the conditional distribution of the data given the parameter to obtain the posterior distribution of the parameter. The estimator is obtained from the posterior distribution.
Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).
An attribute control chart that plots the total number of defects per unit in a subgroup. Similar to a defects-per-unit or U chart.
Data consisting of counts or observations that can be classiied into categories. The categories may be descriptive.
Central composite design (CCD)
A second-order response surface design in k variables consisting of a two-level factorial, 2k axial runs, and one or more center points. The two-level factorial portion of a CCD can be a fractional factorial design when k is large. The CCD is the most widely used design for itting a second-order model.
Another term for the conidence coeficient.
Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.
A term used for the quantity ( / )( ) 1 1 2 n xi i n ? = that is subtracted from xi i n 2 ? =1 to give the corrected sum of squares deined as (/ ) ( ) 1 1 2 n xx i x i n ? = i ? . The correction factor can also be written as nx 2 .
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the off-diagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .
A square matrix that contains the variances and covariances among a set of random variables, say, X1 , X X 2 k , , … . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are the variances of the random variables and the off-diagonal elements are the covariances between Xi and Xj . Also called the variance-covariance matrix. When the random variables are standardized to have unit variances, the covariance matrix becomes the correlation matrix.
An expression sometimes used for nonlinear regression models or polynomial regression models.
A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.
Estimator (or point estimator)
A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.
Any test of signiicance involving the F distribution. The most common F-tests are (1) testing hypotheses about the variances or standard deviations of two independent normal distributions, (2) testing hypotheses about treatment means or variance components in the analysis of variance, and (3) testing signiicance of regression or tests on subsets of parameters in a regression model.
Fisher’s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pair-wise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.
A method of variable selection in regression, where variables are inserted one at a time into the model until no other variables that contribute signiicantly to the model can be found.
Fraction defective control chart
See P chart
Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.
An arrangement of the frequencies of observations in a sample or population according to the values that the observations take on