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Solutions for Chapter 4.4: Elementary Statistics 12th Edition

Elementary Statistics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321836960 | Authors: Mario F. Triola

Full solutions for Elementary Statistics | 12th Edition

ISBN: 9780321836960

Elementary Statistics | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321836960 | Authors: Mario F. Triola

Solutions for Chapter 4.4

Solutions for Chapter 4.4
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Textbook: Elementary Statistics
Edition: 12
Author: Mario F. Triola
ISBN: 9780321836960

Elementary Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321836960. Chapter 4.4 includes 32 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics, edition: 12. Since 32 problems in chapter 4.4 have been answered, more than 171072 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Statistics Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Analytic study

    A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to a future population. Stability needs to be assumed. See Enumerative study

  • Assignable cause

    The portion of the variability in a set of observations that can be traced to speciic causes, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a special cause.

  • Bivariate distribution

    The joint probability distribution of two random variables.

  • Block

    In experimental design, a group of experimental units or material that is relatively homogeneous. The purpose of dividing experimental units into blocks is to produce an experimental design wherein variability within blocks is smaller than variability between blocks. This allows the factors of interest to be compared in an environment that has less variability than in an unblocked experiment.

  • Central limit theorem

    The simplest form of the central limit theorem states that the sum of n independently distributed random variables will tend to be normally distributed as n becomes large. It is a necessary and suficient condition that none of the variances of the individual random variables are large in comparison to their sum. There are more general forms of the central theorem that allow ininite variances and correlated random variables, and there is a multivariate version of the theorem.

  • Comparative experiment

    An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.

  • Confounding

    When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.

  • Counting techniques

    Formulas used to determine the number of elements in sample spaces and events.

  • Covariance

    A measure of association between two random variables obtained as the expected value of the product of the two random variables around their means; that is, Cov(X Y, ) [( )( )] =? ? E X Y ? ? X Y .

  • Covariance matrix

    A square matrix that contains the variances and covariances among a set of random variables, say, X1 , X X 2 k , , … . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are the variances of the random variables and the off-diagonal elements are the covariances between Xi and Xj . Also called the variance-covariance matrix. When the random variables are standardized to have unit variances, the covariance matrix becomes the correlation matrix.

  • Critical region

    In hypothesis testing, this is the portion of the sample space of a test statistic that will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.

  • Critical value(s)

    The value of a statistic corresponding to a stated signiicance level as determined from the sampling distribution. For example, if PZ z PZ ( )( .) . ? =? = 0 025 . 1 96 0 025, then z0 025 . = 1 9. 6 is the critical value of z at the 0.025 level of signiicance. Crossed factors. Another name for factors that are arranged in a factorial experiment.

  • Cumulative distribution function

    For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.

  • Distribution free method(s)

    Any method of inference (hypothesis testing or conidence interval construction) that does not depend on the form of the underlying distribution of the observations. Sometimes called nonparametric method(s).

  • Error of estimation

    The difference between an estimated value and the true value.

  • Estimator (or point estimator)

    A procedure for producing an estimate of a parameter of interest. An estimator is usually a function of only sample data values, and when these data values are available, it results in an estimate of the parameter of interest.

  • Finite population correction factor

    A term in the formula for the variance of a hypergeometric random variable.

  • Fraction defective control chart

    See P chart

  • Geometric mean.

    The geometric mean of a set of n positive data values is the nth root of the product of the data values; that is, g x i n i n = ( ) = / w 1 1 .

  • Goodness of fit

    In general, the agreement of a set of observed values and a set of theoretical values that depend on some hypothesis. The term is often used in itting a theoretical distribution to a set of observations.

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