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Solutions for Chapter 11: GoodnessofFit and Contingency Tables
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics  12th Edition
ISBN: 9780321836960
Solutions for Chapter 11: GoodnessofFit and Contingency Tables
Get Full SolutionsThis textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics, edition: 12. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Elementary Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321836960. Chapter 11: GoodnessofFit and Contingency Tables includes 10 full stepbystep solutions. Since 10 problems in chapter 11: GoodnessofFit and Contingency Tables have been answered, more than 214219 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter.

Alias
In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.

Bias
An effect that systematically distorts a statistical result or estimate, preventing it from representing the true quantity of interest.

Central tendency
The tendency of data to cluster around some value. Central tendency is usually expressed by a measure of location such as the mean, median, or mode.

Comparative experiment
An experiment in which the treatments (experimental conditions) that are to be studied are included in the experiment. The data from the experiment are used to evaluate the treatments.

Confounding
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.

Conidence coeficient
The probability 1?a associated with a conidence interval expressing the probability that the stated interval will contain the true parameter value.

Contingency table.
A tabular arrangement expressing the assignment of members of a data set according to two or more categories or classiication criteria

Continuous random variable.
A random variable with an interval (either inite or ininite) of real numbers for its range.

Control chart
A graphical display used to monitor a process. It usually consists of a horizontal center line corresponding to the incontrol value of the parameter that is being monitored and lower and upper control limits. The control limits are determined by statistical criteria and are not arbitrary, nor are they related to speciication limits. If sample points fall within the control limits, the process is said to be incontrol, or free from assignable causes. Points beyond the control limits indicate an outofcontrol process; that is, assignable causes are likely present. This signals the need to ind and remove the assignable causes.

Cook’s distance
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.

Cumulative distribution function
For a random variable X, the function of X deined as PX x ( ) ? that is used to specify the probability distribution.

Dependent variable
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.

Design matrix
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.

Discrete uniform random variable
A discrete random variable with a inite range and constant probability mass function.

Enumerative study
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study

Erlang random variable
A continuous random variable that is the sum of a ixed number of independent, exponential random variables.

Error mean square
The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.

Error of estimation
The difference between an estimated value and the true value.

Experiment
A series of tests in which changes are made to the system under study

Firstorder model
A model that contains only irstorder terms. For example, the irstorder response surface model in two variables is y xx = + ?? ? ? 0 11 2 2 + + . A irstorder model is also called a main effects model