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Solutions for Chapter 12.2: Elementary Statistics 12th Edition
Full solutions for Elementary Statistics  12th Edition
ISBN: 9780321836960
Solutions for Chapter 12.2
Get Full SolutionsThis expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 33 problems in chapter 12.2 have been answered, more than 197836 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Elementary Statistics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321836960. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Statistics, edition: 12. Chapter 12.2 includes 33 full stepbystep solutions.

Average
See Arithmetic mean.

Backward elimination
A method of variable selection in regression that begins with all of the candidate regressor variables in the model and eliminates the insigniicant regressors one at a time until only signiicant regressors remain

Box plot (or box and whisker plot)
A graphical display of data in which the box contains the middle 50% of the data (the interquartile range) with the median dividing it, and the whiskers extend to the smallest and largest values (or some deined lower and upper limits).

Causeandeffect diagram
A chart used to organize the various potential causes of a problem. Also called a ishbone diagram.

Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.

Components of variance
The individual components of the total variance that are attributable to speciic sources. This usually refers to the individual variance components arising from a random or mixed model analysis of variance.

Conditional probability distribution
The distribution of a random variable given that the random experiment produces an outcome in an event. The given event might specify values for one or more other random variables

Confounding
When a factorial experiment is run in blocks and the blocks are too small to contain a complete replicate of the experiment, one can run a fraction of the replicate in each block, but this results in losing information on some effects. These effects are linked with or confounded with the blocks. In general, when two factors are varied such that their individual effects cannot be determined separately, their effects are said to be confounded.

Consistent estimator
An estimator that converges in probability to the true value of the estimated parameter as the sample size increases.

Continuity correction.
A correction factor used to improve the approximation to binomial probabilities from a normal distribution.

Continuous uniform random variable
A continuous random variable with range of a inite interval and a constant probability density function.

Contrast
A linear function of treatment means with coeficients that total zero. A contrast is a summary of treatment means that is of interest in an experiment.

Critical region
In hypothesis testing, this is the portion of the sample space of a test statistic that will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis.

Cumulative normal distribution function
The cumulative distribution of the standard normal distribution, often denoted as ?( ) x and tabulated in Appendix Table II.

Defect concentration diagram
A quality tool that graphically shows the location of defects on a part or in a process.

Error sum of squares
In analysis of variance, this is the portion of total variability that is due to the random component in the data. It is usually based on replication of observations at certain treatment combinations in the experiment. It is sometimes called the residual sum of squares, although this is really a better term to use only when the sum of squares is based on the remnants of a modelitting process and not on replication.

Fisherâ€™s least signiicant difference (LSD) method
A series of pairwise hypothesis tests of treatment means in an experiment to determine which means differ.

Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.

Generating function
A function that is used to determine properties of the probability distribution of a random variable. See Momentgenerating function

Geometric mean.
The geometric mean of a set of n positive data values is the nth root of the product of the data values; that is, g x i n i n = ( ) = / w 1 1 .