- 1.3.1: Statistical Literacy A study involves three variables: income level...
- 1.3.2: Statistical Literacy Consider a completely randomized experiment in...
- 1.3.3: Ecology: Gathering Data Which technique for gathering data (observa...
- 1.3.4: General: Gathering Data Which technique for gathering data (samplin...
- 1.3.5: General: Completely Randomized Experiment How would you use a compl...
- 1.3.6: Surveys: Manipulation The New York Times did a special report on po...
- 1.3.7: Critical Thinking An agricultural study is comparing the harvest vo...
Solutions for Chapter 1.3: Getting Started
Full solutions for Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition
a-error (or a-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is actually false (also called a type II error).
A chart used to organize the various potential causes of a problem. Also called a ishbone diagram.
A horizontal line on a control chart at the value that estimates the mean of the statistic plotted on the chart. See Control chart.
Chi-square (or chi-squared) random variable
A continuous random variable that results from the sum of squares of independent standard normal random variables. It is a special case of a gamma random variable.
The probability 1?a associated with a conidence interval expressing the probability that the stated interval will contain the true parameter value.
If it is possible to write a probability statement of the form PL U ( ) ? ? ? ? = ?1 where L and U are functions of only the sample data and ? is a parameter, then the interval between L and U is called a conidence interval (or a 100 1( )% ? ? conidence interval). The interpretation is that a statement that the parameter ? lies in this interval will be true 100 1( )% ? ? of the times that such a statement is made
Another term for the conidence coeficient.
An estimator that converges in probability to the true value of the estimated parameter as the sample size increases.
A correction factor used to improve the approximation to binomial probabilities from a normal distribution.
A square matrix that contains the correlations among a set of random variables, say, XX X 1 2 k , ,…, . The main diagonal elements of the matrix are unity and the off-diagonal elements rij are the correlations between Xi and Xj .
Cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM)
A control chart in which the point plotted at time t is the sum of the measured deviations from target for all statistics up to time t
A matrix that provides the tests that are to be conducted in an experiment.
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
A concept in parameter estimation that uses the variances of different estimators; essentially, an estimator is more eficient than another estimator if it has smaller variance. When estimators are biased, the concept requires modiication.
A study in which a sample from a population is used to make inference to the population. See Analytic study
Error mean square
The error sum of squares divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
The expected value of a random variable X is its long-term average or mean value. In the continuous case, the expected value of X is E X xf x dx ( ) = ?? ( ) ? ? where f ( ) x is the density function of the random variable X.
Fractional factorial experiment
A type of factorial experiment in which not all possible treatment combinations are run. This is usually done to reduce the size of an experiment with several factors.
Effects in a fractional factorial experiment that are used to construct the experimental tests used in the experiment. The generators also deine the aliases.
The geometric mean of a set of n positive data values is the nth root of the product of the data values; that is, g x i n i n = ( ) = / w 1 1 .