- 8.1.1: Statistical Literacy The value zc is a value from the standard norm...
- 8.1.2: Statistical Literacy The point estimate for the population mean m o...
- 8.1.3: Statistical Literacy Consider a random sample of size n from an x d...
- 8.1.4: Statistical Literacy Every random sample of the same size from a gi...
- 8.1.5: Statistical Literacy A larger sample size produces a longer confide...
- 8.1.6: Statistical Literacy If the original x distribution has a relativel...
- 8.1.7: Statistical Literacy If the sample mean of a random sample from an ...
- 8.1.8: Statistical Literacy For the same random sample, when the confidenc...
- 8.1.9: Critical Thinking Sam computed a 95% confidence interval for m from...
- 8.1.10: Critical Thinking Sam computed a 90% confidence interval for m from...
- 8.1.11: Zoology: Hummingbirds Allens hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin) has be...
- 8.1.12: Diagnostic Tests: Uric Acid Overproduction of uric acid in the body...
- 8.1.13: Diagnostic Tests: Plasma Volume Total plasma volume is important in...
- 8.1.14: Agriculture: Watermelon What price do farmers get for their waterme...
- 8.1.15: FBI Report: Larceny Thirty small communities in Connecticut (popula...
- 8.1.16: Salaries: Student Services Consider college officials in admissions...
- 8.1.17: Salaries: College Administrators How much do college administrators...
- 8.1.18: Ecology: Sand Dunes At wind speeds above 1000 centimeters per secon...
- 8.1.19: Profits: Banks Jobs and productivity! How do banks rate? One way to...
- 8.1.20: Profits: Retail Jobs and productivity! How do retail stores rate? O...
- 8.1.21: Ballooning: Air Temperature How hot is the air in the top (crown) o...
Solutions for Chapter 8.1: ESTIMATION
Full solutions for Understandable Statistics | 9th Edition
`-error (or `-risk)
In hypothesis testing, an error incurred by rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually true (also called a type I error).
Additivity property of x 2
If two independent random variables X1 and X2 are distributed as chi-square with v1 and v2 degrees of freedom, respectively, Y = + X X 1 2 is a chi-square random variable with u = + v v 1 2 degrees of freedom. This generalizes to any number of independent chi-square random variables.
Adjusted R 2
A variation of the R 2 statistic that compensates for the number of parameters in a regression model. Essentially, the adjustment is a penalty for increasing the number of parameters in the model. Alias. In a fractional factorial experiment when certain factor effects cannot be estimated uniquely, they are said to be aliased.
The portion of the variability in a set of observations that can be traced to speciic causes, such as operators, materials, or equipment. Also called a special cause.
A method of variable selection in regression that begins with all of the candidate regressor variables in the model and eliminates the insigniicant regressors one at a time until only signiicant regressors remain
An equation for a conditional probability such as PA B ( | ) in terms of the reverse conditional probability PB A ( | ).
Completely randomized design (or experiment)
A type of experimental design in which the treatments or design factors are assigned to the experimental units in a random manner. In designed experiments, a completely randomized design results from running all of the treatment combinations in random order.
Conditional probability density function
The probability density function of the conditional probability distribution of a continuous random variable.
In regression, Cook’s distance is a measure of the inluence of each individual observation on the estimates of the regression model parameters. It expresses the distance that the vector of model parameter estimates with the ith observation removed lies from the vector of model parameter estimates based on all observations. Large values of Cook’s distance indicate that the observation is inluential.
An expression sometimes used for nonlinear regression models or polynomial regression models.
A subset of effects in a fractional factorial design that deine the aliases in the design.
The response variable in regression or a designed experiment.
An experiment in which the tests are planned in advance and the plans usually incorporate statistical models. See Experiment
Another name for a cumulative distribution function.
A concept in parameter estimation that uses the variances of different estimators; essentially, an estimator is more eficient than another estimator if it has smaller variance. When estimators are biased, the concept requires modiication.
A model to relate a response to one or more regressors or factors that is developed from data obtained from the system.
Estimate (or point estimate)
The numerical value of a point estimator.
The distribution of the random variable deined as the ratio of two independent chi-square random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom.
Fraction defective control chart
See P chart
The harmonic mean of a set of data values is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the data values; that is, h n x i n i = ? ? ? ? ? = ? ? 1 1 1 1 g .